2020. no2

Theoretical and Applied Research


Vitaly Kurennoy  Candidate of Sciences in Philosophy, Professor, Head of the School of Cultural Studies, Faculty of Humanities, National Research University Higher School of Economics.

Address: Bld. 1, 21/4 Staraya Basmannaya Str., 105066 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: vkurennoj@hse.ru

The first article devoted to philosophy of liberal education (Voprosy obrazovaniya / Educational Studies Moscow no 1, 2020) laid out systematically the principles of that philosophy, such as (1) lifelong learning, (2) academic freedom, (3) importance of practice and experience, (4) critical thinking and civil competency, (5) competency development instead of knowledge accumulation, (6) priority of general education over specialized education, (7) the concept of learning to learn, (8) self-directed learning effort, (9) political neutrality, and (10) interaction and Socratic dialogue. In this second part of the article, the liberal model of education is contextualized under two main perspectives, historical and socio-theoretical. The historical perspective is used to discuss the ancient origins of the liberal model, German classical philosophy as a direct origin of its principles, and the trajectories of liberal education discourse elements penetrating Russia’s educational and cultural policy. The socio-theoretical perspective is applied to the context in which the liberal model was conceived (the nascent stage of modernity), the social conditions that led to its crisis (stabilized industrial societies of the modern age), and its relevance in the era of late modernity.


Denis Federiakin — Intern Researcher, Center for Psychometrics and Measurements in Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics.

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: dafederiakin@hse.ru

The last three decades have seen an increase in researchers’ interest in international comparative assessments of educational outcomes, particularly at the level of secondary schools. Achieving cross-national comparability is the main methodological challenge in the design of such studies. Cross-national comparability of test scores implies that the measure operates similarly across all the participating countries, regardless of their linguistic and cultural differences.The process of achieving cross-national comparability in higher education is more complicated due to specific features of higher education. This article explores the modern understanding of cross-national comparability of student assessment results and the possible ways of achieving it. It analyzes the specific aspects of higher education that complicate standardized measurement of educational outcomes and trivial achievement of cross-national comparability.The process of designing and conducting the Study of Undergraduate Performance — an international comparative research project aimed to assess and compare higher engineering education across nations — is described as an example of overcoming those challenges.


Larisa Bedareva — Research Fellow, Center for Lifelong Learning Economics, Institute of Applied Economic Research, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. Е-mail: lara-2006@mail.ru

Elena Semionova  Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Leading Researcher, Center for Lifelong Learning Economics, Institute of Applied Economic Research, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. E-mail: semionova-ea@ranepa.ru

Galina Tokareva — Research Fellow, Center for Lifelong Learning Economics, Institute of Applied Economic Research, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. E-mail: tokareva-gs@ranepa.ru

Address: 82 Vernadskogo Ave, 119571 Moscow, Russian Federation.

This paper provides a review of Russian and international studies devoted to early childhood education policies, substantiating the need to forecast the demand for preschool education. Data on 2008–2018 preschool education in Central, Ural, Northwestern, and Volga Federal Districts is analyzed, and predictions regarding the development of early childhood education in the specified regions are made, using Sergey Belyakov’s model, for the 2019–2031 period. The following indicators are forecasted for each region: the number of children aged 0–7; the number of preschool students; the ratio of potential enrollment to kindergarten capacity; the student–teacher ratio in kindergartens; and the demand for preschool teachers.


Saule Bekova — Research Fellow, Center of Sociology of Higher Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics.

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: bekova.sk@gmail.com

Doctoral student attrition is one of the most debated problems in higher education. Related studies are few in Russia, mostly being of applied type and offering no theoretical approaches to research on departure from doctoral study. Tinto’s model of student departure based on Durkheim’s theory of suicide is the most widespread theoretical framework among U.S. and European researchers. However, Tinto’s model only considers egoistic suicide. The present study offers an integrated approach to Durkheim’s theory, demonstrating the potential of applying the entire theoretical typology of suicide to analyze scenarios of doctoral student attrition. Interviews with doctoral students who did not finish their thesis were used to identify the major challenges faced by doctoral candidates and to provide recommendations for overcoming the problem of non-completion in Russian doctoral education.

Thematic issue based on the results of the International Conference “Innovation In Learning Instruction and Teacher Education”

Editorial for Thematic Issue

Martin Hayden — PhD, Professor of Higher Education, School of Education, Southern Cross University, Australia. E-mail: martin.hayden@scu.edu.au

Hoang Hai Ha — PhD, Hanoi National University of Education, Vietnam. E-mail: hahh@hnue.edu.vn


Jacques Ginestié — Full Professor at Aix-Marseille University, Director of the Laboratory EA 4671 ADEF (Learning, Education, Assessment, Training). E-mail: jacques.ginestie@univ-amu.fr

Maria Antonietta Impedovo — Assistant Professor at ADEF Laboratory, Aix-Marseille University. E-mail: maria-antonietta.impedovo@univ-amu.fr

Address: ADEF, Aix-Marseille Université, Campus Saint Jérôme, 52, Avenue Normandie Niémen, 13013, Marseille, France.

Blended learning is one of the wider used instructional approaches to higher education for initial and continuing education. Blended education proposed between different international regions and countries is still scarce, especially involving developing countries. Specifically, we are interested to explore blended learning course for international teachers and teacher-educators professional learning. Some theoretical and operational principles to the design of blended learning are discussed in a socio-constructivist approach, followed by the description of a blended design in an international project. The paper goes in the direction to explore the potential for global collaboration and cooperative growth in blended learning.


Tran Hai Ngoc — Senior Lecturer, Institute of Continuing Education, Ha Tinh University. Address: No 447, 26 March Str., Ha Tinh city, Vietnam. E-mail: ngoc.tranhai@htu.edu.vn

Phan Van Nhan* — Associate Professor, Vietnam National Institute of Educational Sciences. Address: No 101, Tran Hung Dao Str., Ha Noi, Vietnam. E-mail: thucnghiem106@yahoo.com
*corresponding author 

Doan Hoai Son — PhD, Ha Tinh University. Address: No 447, 26 March Str., Ha Tinh city, Vietnam. E-mail: son.doanhoai@htu.edu.vn

Tran Thi Ai Duc — PhD, Director, Institute of Continuous Training. Address: No 447, 26 March Str., Ha Tinh city, Vietnam. E-mail: duc.tranthiai@htu.edu.vn

Tran Giang Nam — PhD, Ha Tinh Department of Education and Training. Address: No 105, Phan Dinh Phung Str., Ha Tinh city, Vietnam. E-mail: trangiangnam@hatinh.edu.vn

Lecturer professional development (LPD) plays a significant role in enhancing student achievement and school improvement. It is a process which starts during lecturer training at tertiary education institutions and extends to include job-embedded and collaborative professional learning opportunities for lecturers at their institutions. Many strategies for lecturer professional development have been proposed in the literature on higher education. This qualitative case study investigation sought to identify various typical strategies employed to promote lecturer professional development at Ha Tinh University in Central Vietnam. Ten strategies were identified, some of which were university-based, while others were offered externally. These strategies are described within the context of significant reforms being implemented in the higher education sector in Vietnam.


Gabriele Schrüfer — Head of the Chair of Geography Education, University of Bayreuth. Address: Universitätsstr. 30, 95494 Bayreuth, Germany. E-mail: gabriele.schruefer@uni-muenster.de

Katja Wrenger — Dr., Scientific Assistant and Lecturer, Institute of Geography Education, University of Münster. Address: Heisenbergstr. 2, 48149 Münster, Germany. E-mail: katja.wrenger@uni-muenster.de

Imme Lindemann — MSc. Geography, Scientific Staff Member, University of Münster. Address: Heisenbergstr. 2, 48149 Münster, Germany. E-mail: i_lind05@uni-muenster.de

In order to meet the challenges in a globalised world, appropriate competencies should be initiated among pupils in the sense of education for sustainable development. In Germany, the focus in this context is on systems thinking and evaluation competence. At the same time, the importance of digital media in the everyday lives of children and at school is increasing more and more. Both the promotion of ESD skills and the use of digital media in teaching are based on a constructivist approach to learning. The question therefore arose, how can ESD competences be promoted with digital media? With the help of a design-based-research approach online learning arrangements (so-called reflectories) were developed. The word “reflectory” is composed of the terms “reflect” and “(s)tory”. In concrete terms, the learners are integrated into a “story” within which they are invited to make reflective decisions. Then they are immediately confronted with possible consequences of their decisions, which in turn are starting points for further necessary decisions. On the basis of audio contributions, images and text materials, learners have to weigh up and finally make and reflect on complex and uncertain decisions. The content of the reflectories is based on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In a first step, content-related aspects and interactions were worked up on selected SDGs and reviewed by expert scientists. Subsequently, reflectories were developed with the involvement of teachers. The reflectories are beeing tested with teachers and students. In the paper, the criteria for the promotion of competences will be discussed based on the corresponding research results. Students were very motivated by the fact that they could make their own decisions on the basis of which they could continue to work. It was particularly emphasized that they learned that decisions can often not be right or wrong, but that these decisions can also have many consequences.


Lut De Jaegher — Lecturer, Artevelde University College Ghent (Belgium).

Address: Artevelde University College Ghent, Hoogpoort 15, BE — 9000 Gent. E-mail: lut.dejaegher@arteveldehs.be

Flipping the classroom is an instructional model in which students learn basic subject knowledge prior to the face-to-face class moment, where they can have active learning experiences with their peers and teachers. Research revealed the positive effects for students, who can learn at their own pace, reach up to the highest level of the thinking skills of Bloom’s taxonomy, exercise and improve their collaboration, communication and ICT skills. Where most of the research concentrates on the learning effects for the students, this paper presents the results of recent European research on the impact for teachers. Setting up a learning path for flipped classroom, is a big challenge. Together with 7 European partners from Belgium, Italy, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Poland and the Netherlands, we did research on how students and teachers perceive the implementation of the flipped classroom model in their teaching and how challenging the integration of technology in their lessons is. We also asked about their perceptions: are the benefits worth the efforts, is the flipped classroom model improving their teaching skills and what are their needs and requirements to get succeed? We started by getting the teachers a flipped classroom instruction to learn the method, combined with a face-to-face training in Belgium, where they were supported to create a flipped classroom learning path for their own subjects and classes. Then, they implemented the method in their institutions for adult and higher education. The surveys were conducted after this try out, in all of the 7 European participating countries. The research results of the surveys will be presented and used to make recommendations that increase the chance of a successful implementation of the flipped classroom method. These recommendations were tested and evaluated during flipped classroom trainings at teacher training departments in Belgium and Vietnam. The qualitative test results will also be presented in this paper.

Transformative Perceptions of In-Service Teachers towards STEM Education: The Vietnamese Case Study

Nguyen Hoai Nam — PhD in Theoretical Physics, Associate Professor in Philosophy and Methodology of Technology Education and Vice Dean of the Faculty of Technology Education, Hanoi National University of Education. E-mail: namnh@hnue.edu.vn

Le Xuan Quang — PhD in Philosophy and Methodology of Technology Education, Lecturer of the Faculty of Technology Education, Vice Director of University of Education Publishing House, Hanoi National University of Education. E-mail: quanglx@hnue.edu.vn

Nguyen Van Hien — PhD in Philosophy and Methodology of Biology Education, Associate Professor in Philosophy and Methodology of Biology Education of the Faculty of Biology, Hanoi National University of Education. E-mail: hiennv@hnue.edu.vn

Nguyen Van Bien — PhD in Philosophy and Methodology of Physics Education, Associate Professor in Philosophy and Methodology of Physics Education of the Faculty of Physics, Hanoi National University of Education. E-mail: biennv@hnue.edu.vn

Address: 136 Xuanthuy, Caugiay, Hanoi, Vietnam. 

Nguyen Thi Thu Trang — PhD in Material Chemistry, Director of STEM Education Center, Lecturer of the Faculty of Chemistry, Ho Chi Minh City University of Education. E-mail: thutrang@hcmup.edu.vn

Thai Hoai Minh — PhD in Philosophy and Methodology of Chemistry Education, Vice Dean of the Faculty of Chemistry, Ho Chi Minh City University of Education. E-mail: minhth@hcmue.edu.vn

Le Hai My Ngan — PhD Student in Philosophy and Methodology of Physics Education, Lecturer of the Faculty of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Education. E-mail: nganlhm@hcmue.edu.vn

Address: 280 Anduongvuong, District 5, Hochiminh city, Vietnam.

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education has attracted numerous concerns of scholars and governments. In order to implement the school curriculum on the approach of STEM education, the training of in-service teachers plays an important role. This study conducted the transformative perception of Vietnamese in-service teachers in secondary schools towards STEM education after they had participated in the teacher professional development program (TDP) on engineering designed-based approach hold on by the Second Upper Secondary Education Development Project 2. Having two separate online and offline phases, the course was designed under the format of TDP developed by Garet et al. In order to assess participants’ demographics and their perceptions on STEM education, the instrument was generated on the basis of modification from several previous studies upon engineering design-based learning and to adapt the theme of STEM content knowledge (CK) and STEM pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for in-service teachers. Full data sets were conducted with 150 participants from 11 provinces of Vietnam who had completed all surveys with the help of Google Form at the beginning and the end of TDP’s offline phase. The data were cleaned, then analyzed with SPSS version 20 to assure the validity and reliability. Findings from this study show the positive effectiveness and suitability of the course on the in-service teachers’ attitudes towards STEM education, which consequently allow to suggest the future similar courses design.


Shihkuan Hsu — PhD, Professor at National Taiwan University. E-mail: skhsu@ntu.edu.tw

Chia-Chi Sung — PhD, Professor at National Taiwan University. E-mail: ccsung@ntu.edu.tw

Horn-Jiunn Sheen — PhD, Professor at National Taiwan University. E-mail: sheenh@ntu.edu.tw

Address: No 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, Taiwan 10617, ROC.

Educators have suggested that citizens need the ability to engage in self-directed inquiry and problem solving. In line with the trend, current reforms in Taiwanese schools advocate the development of these core competencies. One way to achieve this goal is through STEM education. STEM modules which integrate science, math, technology, and engineering have become a prime catalyst for inquiry-based multidisciplinary teaching and learning. Although the demands and the benefits of STEM modules are often highlighted, the challenges of the development and implementation of such an interdisciplinary module are less discussed. This paper describes the process of the development of a bio-sensor module that uses Arduino to analyze glucose level of concentration.This multidisciplinary module integrates physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, electronics, and programming. The goal of the program is for students to construct a device that imitates a commercial glucose meter. Teacher workshops were conducted for educators to learn the concepts and the procedures. A set of questionnaires collected from 21 workshop participants revealed that teachers face various challenges in the process of understanding and modifying the STEM module, as well as preparing students so they are ready to learn with the module. A group interview after the workshop revealed the teachers’ difficulties in implementing a module that requires advanced technical skills and materials. The potential usefulness for the students, and the emergence of a different goal than the original plan, provide challenging and enlightening lessons. Rather than an engineering-centered model, this study proposes an alternative science-centered model for STEM material development.


Implementing the Adaptive Learning Techniques

Ivan Krechetov — Head of the Laboratory of Instrumental Modelling and Learning Systems, Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics. E-mail: kia@2i.tusur.ru

Vladimir Romanenko — Candidate of Sciences in Technology, Associate Professor, Department of Automated Control Systems, Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics. E-mail: rva@2i.tusur.ru

Address: Room 607, 146 Krasnoarmeyskaya Str., 634034 Tomsk, Russian Federation.

The concept of adaptive learning emerged a few decades ago, but most theoretical findings have never been put into practice, and software solutions had no significant reach for a long time due to insufficient e-learning technology development and coverage. The recent advancements of information technology allow the elaboration of complex big data analytics and artificial intelligence solutions, in adaptive learning in particular.This article investigates exploitation of adaptive learning technology and techniques.The solutions proposed allow mapping optimal individualized learning paths for students in online courses, using the ratio of the level of knowledge at course completion to time spent on the course as an optimality criterion. A genetic algorithm is used to solve this optimization problem. A model based on the speed of forgetting was applied to extrapolate the level of retained knowledge. Practical implementation of the technology proposed involves a set of tools to expand the adaptive learning opportunities of distance learning systems and a module to operate the genetic algorithm. We developed a few options of software architecture using different technologies and programming languages and either one or two servers. The solution was tested during the design of adaptive learning courses for National University of Science and Technology MISIS (NUST MISIS) and Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics (TUSUR).


Elena Kochukhova  — Candidate of Sciences in Philosophy, Senior Researcher, Institute of Philosophy and Law, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Address: 16 Sofyi Kovalevskoy Str., 620049 Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation. E-mail: elenascause@yandex.ru

This paper analyzes the findings from a study of faculty’s perceptions of teaching as the most significant component of the academic profession. In a broader context, it investigates into the transformation of the academic profession, meaning that professors in Russia as well as around the world tend to perform research, administrative, and expert functions more and more often. Previously, Russian researchers observed a conflict between faculty’s perception of teaching as the most important profession component and administrators’ publication productivity requirements. A number of publications present strategies that professors use to adjust to the changing administrative requirements. However, the existing findings mostly reflect administrators’ perception of the academic profession, on which the faculty’s perspective is considered to be implicitly dependent. Available literature offers little evidence of how professors perceive the content, meaning, and goals of the academic profession. The present study was designed to find out by which goals and norms faculty members are guided in doing their work and to determine the logic behind the way they allocate their efforts among various aspects of teaching. Data was collected using focused in-depth interviews carried out in a Yekaterinburg university. Research was performed within a methodological framework of grounded theory and narrative analysis which traces its origin to hermeneutics. Findings indicate that professors share similar perceptions of the skills necessary to do their work, the goals of teaching, and the criteria for maintaining educational quality. Meanwhile, there is no platform for building those perceptions, faculty’s attitudes being shaped under the influence of their mentors and personal experience. The study also evaluates the impact of other university actors (students, colleagues, administrators) on the respondents’ perceptions of the teaching process. Finally, a rationale for building professional solidarity within the university’s academic community is provided.