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2019. no4

Theoretical and Applied Research

8–29

Elena Drugova – Candidate of Sciences in Philosophy, Senior Researcher, Research Center “Human, Environment & Technology” (HumaNET Research Center) Tyumen State University; Director of the Institute of Advanced Learning Technologies, National Research Tomsk State University.

Address: 23 Lenina Str., 625003 Tyumen, Russian Federation. E-mail: e.a.drugova@gmail.com

Teaching excellence and academic leadership programs have been emerging and growing in response to the increasing demand for better teaching quality and educational change in universities all over the world. International publications analyzing the experiences of high-ranking universities in developed economies (USA, Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, and Australia) are reviewed in this article to identify the characteristics of successful professional development programs for teaching quality and academic leadership in higher education designed to foster educational change. Some fundamental concepts are investigated, such as teaching excellence, teaching quality, instructional development, and academic leadership; their fuzziness and partial overlapping are demonstrated. The article also describes the characteristics of teaching excellence programs for academic leaders, such as key stakeholders (governmental, institutional, and teacher demands) and major approaches to promoting teaching excellence and academic leadership, which include the concept of reflective practice, andragogical theory, transformative learning approach, self-directed learning, inquiry-based learning, and refocusing from teacher to student. The core design features of teaching excellence and academic leadership programs are discussed, such as selection criteria, frequency and duration, principles and formats of implementation, performance and effectiveness assessment. Special emphasis is placed upon the potential obstacles in program realization, in particular the role of internal administrative policies and institutional environment on program effectiveness and the embeddedness of such programs into the university system of educational quality assurance, teacher performance monitoring, career advancement, and human resource strategies.

30–46

Erik De Corte – Professor Emeritus, Center for Instructional Psychology and Technology (CIP&T), University of Leuven, Belgium.

Address: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Oude Markt, 13, Bus 50053000 Leuven, Belgium. E-mail: erik.decorte@kuleuven.be

The interdisciplinary research in the learning sciences has and still does substantially contribute to meeting the current need for new environments for learning by developing and elaborating new perspectives on the ultimate goal of school education, and on the nature of learning to achieve this goal. The presentation start with a brief review of such a perspective. Against this background the article will focus on self-regulation as a major component of the goals of education. Findings about the positive relationship between self-regulation and student learning have lead researchers to design learning environments for improving students’ self-regulation skills. Several metacognitive methods have been designed especially for the math learning; as an example the IMPROVE model developed by Mevarech and Kramarski (2014) well briefly be presented. Research evidence will then be discussed showing that such learning environments are effective for developing and improving self-regulated learning in Kindergarten children and primary and secondary school students. Of course, realizing this potential requires in the classroom teachers pay explicit attention to the teaching of self-regulated activities. Therefore, a major challenge for teacher training and professional development consists in improving teachers’ awareness and knowledge of self-regulation and equipping them with effective strategies for developing self-regulation skills in students.

47–70

Valeria Ivaniushina – Candidate of Sciences in Biology, Leading Researcher, Laboratory of Sociology in Education and Science, National Research University Higher School of Economics (St. Petersburg).

Address: Bld. 2, 55 Sedova Str., 192171 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. E-mail: ivaniushina@hse.ru.

Elena Williams – Graduate Student, University of Edinburgh.

Address: Murchison House, 10 Max Born Cres, Edinburgh EH9 3BF, United Kingdom. E-mail: elenpwilliams@gmail.com.

 

School tracking is defined as the placement of students into different school types, hierarchically structured by performance. In the majority of OECD countries, tracking takes place at the age of 15 or 16. In Russia, similarly, students are sorted into “academic” (high school) and “non-academic” (vocational training) tracks after Grade 9, at the age of 15. However, even before that split, Russian children are distributed among schools of differing types (“regular” schools, specialized schools, gymnasiums and lyceums), which some researchers refer to as “pre-tracking” [Kosyakova et al. 2016]. No empirical evidence as to how often students change school prior to formal tracking at age 15 has been available so far. Using the St. Petersburg administrative school database containing information on all school transitions made in the 2014/15 academic year, this article investigates school mobility among first to eleventh-graders. In particular, it compares the frequency of changing school across different grades as well as the overall incidence of school transitions. Regression models were constructed for academic/non-academic track choice after Grade 9, which link the share of students transitioning to vocational training institutions with school characteristics. In regard of changing school prior to formal tracking, findings reveal rather low school mobility. Indeed, in spite of having vast school change opportunities in a school system of a Russian megalopolis, 65% students attend the same school from Grade 1 through Grade 9, and 85% stick to one school between Grades 5 and 9. This is consistent with Yulia Kosyakova and her co-authors’ inferences on pre-tracking in the Russian secondary school. The implications for building individual educational trajectories and dealing with educational inequality are discussed.

71–92

Tatiana Klyachko – Doctor of Sciences in Economics, Director of the Center for Lifelong Learning Economics. E-mail: tlk@ranepa.ru.

Elena Semionova – Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Leading Researcher. E-mail: semionova-ea@ranepa.ru.

Galina Tokareva – Research Fellow. E-mail: tokareva-gs@ranepa.ru.

Center for Lifelong Learning Economics, Institute of Applied Economic Research, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education.

Address: 82 Vernadskogo Ave, 119571 Moscow, Russian Federation.

The article presents the results of RANEPA Center for Lifelong Learning Economics’ Monitoring of Efficiency of School Education concerning teachers’ and parents’ perceptions of student achievement. The study involved analysis of official statistics and data from sociological surveys of parents, teachers, and school administrators across different types of communities structured by the level of socioeconomic development.

The fact that student achievement is largely contingent on teacher expertise is beyond dispute. It turns out, however, that teachers also attribute poor student performance to low parental involvement, socioeconomic disadvantage, health issues, and irresponsible student behavior. According to teachers, the proportion of students unable to cope with the curriculum increases consistently from grade to grade, peaking in Grades 8 and 9. Better student performance in Grades 10–11 (high school) may be explained by withdrawal of some students after completing the middle school level.

Most parents perceive their children’s academic performance to be above average. At the same time, along with teachers, parents report a decline in student achievement in middle school. Families attribute this downswing in performance to various factors, including lack of subject-specific abilities, challenging curricula, and decline in student engagement. Only 9.3% of parents consider teaching quality to be a factor of low student performance. Lower average family income is associated with higher frequency of reporting low child performance at school. The influence of family income on student achievement may be explained, in particular, by differences in the opportunity to buy extra tuition, including private tutoring.

93–115

Alina Ivanova – Research Fellow, Center for Monitoring the Quality in Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics.

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St, 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: aeivanova@hse.ru

Ksenia Kardanova-Biryukova – Candidate of Sciences in Philology, Associate Professor, Institute of Foreign Languages, Moscow City University.

Address: 5B Maly Kazenny Lane, 105064 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: Kardanova-BirukovaKS@mgpu.ru

Successful adaptation of first-graders to school largely determines their subsequent educational attainment. In Russia as well as across the globe, there are few high-quality standardized assessment instruments providing comprehensive vision of what children know and what they can do when they start school. Large-scale evaluation of reading literacy is particularly challenging due to age-specific characteristics and the assessment format. This article outlines a step-by-step procedure of localizing a part of an international instrument iPIPS designed to measure early reading skills at the start of school and the progress made during the first school year, within the framework of Russian educational paradigm. Localization is understood as transformation of an instrument originally developed in another language (English in this case) so that it accounts for the cultural and linguistic characteristics of the target audience. The procedure included development of a Russian-language version of iPIPS and a series of studies to verify its construct validity. The process involved analyzing the linguistic characteristics of the original tasks, finding equivalent linguistic means in the Russian language, and designing Russian-language tasks identical to the original ones in terms of functionality. To verify construct validity of the localized instrument, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the scale, tested its reliability, and studied compliance of the task structure and hierarchy with the theoretical framework. The findings have revealed that large-scale local or regional tests administered using this localized assessment instrument may yield valuable data which can be further used for analysis of the current situation and informed decision-making in educational policy.

Practice

116–132

Panchanan Das – Professor of Economics, Department of Economics, University of Calcutta (India).

Address: University of Calcutta, 56A, B. T. Road, Kolkata 700050. E-mail: panchanandaswbes@gmail.com

The objective of this study is to provide a quantifiable measure of the distributional content of education and its implications on earnings distribution by gender across different groups of people by using survey data in India. We analyze educational disparities among the children with age up to 14 years by gender, and household specific characters with Indian data. The study observes that, in the rural economy, the girls have less access to full time education than boys. In the urban region, on the other hand, the access to full time education at primary level is more for girls than for boys. The estimated coverage is less in the rural areas than in urban areas. The HOI is more among the urban children than among the rural children. Parent’s education has the highest contribution to inequality of opportunity to full time education at primary or upper primary level.

133–159

Arkady Margolis – Candidate of Sciences in Psychology, Interim Rector, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education. E-mail: margolisaa@mgppu.ru

Elena Arzhanykh – Head of the Department for Research Project and Event Planning and Coordination, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education. E-mail: arzhanyhev@mgppu.ru

Margarita Khusnutdinova – Candidate of Sciences in Sociology, Head of the Data Analytics Sector of the Department for Research Project and Event Planning and Coordination, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education. E-mail: husnutdinovaMR@mgppu.ru

Address: 29 Sretenka Str., 127051 Moscow, Russian Federation.

Results of a sociological study are used to analyze the major problems of mentoring early-career educators, and arguments are provided to support statutory recognition of mentors for novice school teachers and the mentoring system as such. The study was conducted by members of the MSUPE Center for Applied Psychological and Pedagogical Research jointly with scholars from five regional universities. It involved 25 interviews with school administrators (principals and head teachers) as well as questionnaire surveys of beginning teachers (work experience of under five years, age under 30) and their experienced colleagues. The total sample consisted of 490 teachers (150 new and 430 experienced) employed with federal and municipal institutions of general education.

Findings show that the main barriers to effective mentoring include (i) novice teachers being unaware of their professional deficiencies and the need to be mentored by experts, (ii) experienced teachers being unwilling to mentor because of status, workload and pay uncertainties, and (iii) administrators paying inadequate attention to systematization of novice teacher professional adaptation.

Institutionalization is required to allow further development of the mentoring system in Russian schools. Statutory regulation of mentoring implies introducing relevant job positions, elaborating mentor job duties, determining the size and sources of pay, creating a system of mentor selection and training, and defining the content and major forms of mentoring programs.

160–184

Tatjana L. Novović – PhD, associate professor, University of Montenegro, Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Pedagogy. E-mail: tabo@t-com.me

Dušanka Popović – PhD, associate professor, University of Montenegro, Faculty of Philology, Department for the Montenegrin language and South Slavic Literatures. E-mail: dusana@t-com.me

Address: Ulica Danila Bojovića bb, ME‐81400 Nikšić, Montenegro

Picture books occupy an important place in the life of a child both in family and in school. As a unique combination of illustration and text in a pedagogical mode, picture books teach, incite creative imagination and enrich the cognitive and socio-emotional world of a child. The goal of our research is increase understanding the place and the role of genre diverse picture books in Montenegrin pre-schools in the current context. Pre-school teachers noted key challenges in the use of picture books in pre-school practice in general and singled out proposals for more efficient application. In this paper, we deal with parents’ participation in mediating picture books` content and values to pre-schoolers. We took our research sample from the population of teachers in pre-schools of central, northern and southern region of Montenegro. Our research included 209 pre-school teachers from five kindergartens and 93 respondents from the three institutions, which we interviewed during the seminars. We combined elements of both quantitative and qualitative surveying and interviewing.

Our research indicates a significant and continued use of genre-diverse picture books, but also an absence of new titles, technical support in the selection of high-quality books, domestic authors and vague criteria in the selection of books, as well as a lack of parental involvement in the selection of books.

185–201

Elena Shakirova – Senior Teacher, General Development Kindergarten No 155, Municipal Budgetary Institution of Preschool Education.

Address: 28 Poeta Lebedeva Str., 153022 Ivanovo, Russian Federation. E-mail: cuclitsa@mail.ru

This study draws upon modern motivation theories to formulate a hypothesis on associations between teachers’ interest in creative work and their professional motivation. Research was performed to select and justify forms of preschool teacher training that would promote teachers’ creative motivation for developing an enriched learning environment for children. Between 2016 and 2019, 50 teachers of preschool institutions in Ivanovo and Ivanovo Oblast were surveyed using a questionnaire to identify the primary sources of their professional motivation. Such sources were found to be related to appropriation of collective goals, awareness of the importance of one’s work, and personal perception of the profession. The findings are used to devise the mechanisms of motivating teachers to engage in creative activities to develop an enriched learning environment. The article provides examples of need-satisfaction oriented conditions to promote teachers’ intrinsic motivation, encourage and support their autonomy and initiative. Enriched preschool learning environment is regarded as a specific domain of teachers’ creative activity to boost their creative self-expression and thus provide conditions for a comprehensive child development.

202–230

Nina Ilyina – Doctor of Sciences in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, Head of the Research and Methodology Department, Krasnoyarsk Krai Institute of Educator Professional Development and Training. E-mail: ilina@kipk.ru

Natalya Loginova – Head of the Center of Education Standards and Professional Development, Krasnoyarsk Krai Institute of Educator Professional Development and Training. E-mail: loginova@kipk.ru

Address: 19 Matrosova Str., 660079 Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation.

Young teacher professional development and retention is a major concern for any region of Russia. Professional adaptation of young teachers is complicated nowadays by changes in the teaching profession as such. In particular, those changes result in higher levels of psychological and pedagogical competence required from teachers, which implies embracing new activity-based methods of teacher induction. Young Professional Teacher Games have been held in Krasnoyarsk Krai since 2011 as an innovative way of promoting professional skills in young teachers that provides conditions for the development of their psychological and pedagogical competence. The article presents data from a comparative study of psychological and pedagogical competence development in young teachers as a function of whether they participated in the Young Professional Teacher Games or not. Findings show that competence indicators increased significantly in the experimental group as compared to the control group. Inferences are made on the possible ways of fostering psychological and pedagogical competence in young teachers.

Discussion

231–253

Svetlana Mikheeva – Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Associate Professor, Department of Public Administration, Saint-Petersburg School of Social Sciences and Area Studies, National Research University Higher School of Economics (Saint Petersburg). E-mail: smik252@gmail.com; smikheeva@hse.ru

Olga Zhurkina – Assistant, Department of Economic Theory and Economic Education, Institute of Economics and Management, The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (Saint Petersburg). E-mail: ozhurkina@herzen.spb.ru

Address: 17 Promyshlennaya Str., 198095 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.

Russia’s national school curriculum standards stipulate economic education at three levels: basic, advanced, and as part of the social theory course, yet schools rarely include basic economics in their curricula. Curricula of 615 St. Petersburg schools available at their official websites as well as data from online surveys of parents, students, teachers, and school administrators are used to find evidence of the demand for economics as a subject among school students. The fact that only two levels of economics instruction are represented in St. Petersburg schools is explained by staffing issues and impossibility to take the Unified State Exam (USE) in economics. Initiatives for a meaningful change the current situation are proposed in the article.

Education Statistics and Sociology

254–275

Mark Agranovich – Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Director of the Research Center for Monitoring and Statistics of Education, Federal Institute for the Development of Education, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration.

Address: Bld. 9–1, Chernyakhovskogo Str., 125319 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: agranovich-ml@ranepa.ru

The article explores the methodological issues of education system evaluation. Such evaluation, based on the comparative analysis of national and regional education systems, is an important source of information for education policy design and implementation through educational development programs. The existing approaches to and methods of education system evaluation are discussed. It is shown that they are based on internal indicators, not those perceived by end users or the effects external to the system. Even though there have been some objective reasons for using such approach, it remains unclear to what extent its results reflect the educational outcomes for the end users― that is, individuals, society, and economy? Statistical analysis methods are applied to OECD education statistics to investigate the relations between the education indicators characterizing the level of educational attainment, education accessibility, and the amount and quality of the resources involved, on the one hand, and the outcome effects for individuals, society, and economy. Where such relations are observed, they tend to be non-smooth and only manifest themselves up to a certain point in the vast majority of cases. Such cessation of growth in the outcome indicators that happens after achieving certain levels of resources involved, educational attainment, and other education indicators can be described as oversaturation or satiety effect. Inferences about the limitations and conditions of applying education indicators in education system evaluation are drawn from the findings.

History of Education

The Catalogues of Textbooks for Secondary Schools of the Ministry of Public Education: Principles of Composition, Structure, Evolution


276–293

Tatiana Pashkova – Candidate of Sciences in History, Associate Professor. E-mail: tatianapashkova22@gmail.com

Ekaterina Kameneva – the Fourth-Year Student. E-mail: kameneva.katya777@gmail.com

Egor Karasev – the Fourth-Year Student. E-mail: karasev. e. a.2ip@gmail.com

Nikita Kutsevalov – the Fourth-Year Student. E-mail: rainnick0@gmail.com

Russkova Darya – the Fourth-Year Student. E-mail: dascha.loli@yandex.ru

History and Social Sciences Department, the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia.

Address: 48 Reki Mojki Naberezhnaya, 191186 Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation.

The article is devoted to the study of the phenomena of the special catalogues of textbooks for secondary schools, published by the Ministry of Public Education of the Russian Empire. During the second half of the 19th—beginning of the 20th century an intensive process of developing principles for their compilation, optimal structure and periodicity of output took place. The Scientific Committee of the Ministry was engaged in reviewing educational literature and compiling catalogs. It was called upon to play the role of a kind of filter that did not allow unprofessional textbooks into secondary school. However, despite all the efforts and the large amount of work done, ensure that only recommended textbooks were used in teaching practice throughout the empire, the Ministry has failed.

Book Reviews and Survey Articles

294–306

Pavel Demin – Doctoral Student, Faculty of Social Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economics.

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: pdemin.hse@gmail.com

The volume reviewed provides a critical examination of contemporary trends in the marketization of higher education and university branding. Being bound to respond to external challenges, in particular seek additional sources of finance in the context of reduced public funding, universities are increasingly more likely to adopt governance and development practices from businesses. The book authors consider higher education as a highly competitive market in which universities compete in a very corporate way. In a competitive climate, university branding becomes an effective way of attracting partners and students. Examples of higher education systems in a number of countries (Belgium, Mozambique, Hong Kong, etc.) are used to investigate the strategies used by universities to create, promote and differentiate their brands. The book also explores specific aspects of private university branding, the role of rankings in brand building, government participation in the positioning of national universities in the global higher education market, and the current challenges in branding development and promotion faced by universities, such as the need to develop social capital, differentiate from other institutions, and deal with piggyback marketing.