2013. no4

Theoretical and Applied Research


Jaroslav Kuzminov - Associate Professor, Rector, National Research University Higher School of Economics; Academic Supervisor, Center for Institutional Studies; Leading Research Fellow, Center for Applied Economic Research. E-mail: kouzminov@hse.ru

Dmitry Semyonov - Director, Laboratory for Universities Development, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: dsemyonov@hse.ru

Isak Froumin - Academic Supervisor, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: ifroumin@hse.ru

Address: 20, Myasnitskaya st., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation.

The authors discuss underpinnings of a structural analysis in the higher education system using existing educational systems research and approaches to the analysis of institutional diversity in higher education, as well as relevant the­oretical constructions of social sciences, including the theory of dependence on a previous development. It is reasoned in the article why a focus on specific labour market segments and a nature of a university basic product are used as grounds for a typology and sorting out of groups of organizations. On the basis of the formulated approach to the typology the Soviet “master plan” is reconstructed, since, from the authors’ point of view, the present-day Russian higher education system structure is greatly determined by the Soviet experience of its development. The authors show that the Soviet project was based on the idea of an administrative labour market control, as well as on a number of historically developed institutional peculiarities, and on the whole it ran a model of a quasi-corporate higher vocational education system. It is analyzed how the higher education system structure received by Russia from the Soviet Union changed under the influence of external factors for the education system and only in the least thanks to a conscious public policy. On the basis of an analysis of quantitative data a typology of higher education organi­zations resulted from these changes is described. The authors consider possible structural policy directions in the field of higher vocational education as a foundation for working out a “master plan” of restructuring the higher edu­cation system in Russia. Goals are set that upgrading of the higher education structure should meet: involving Russia into global knowledge and technology networks; meeting the key industries’ demands for personnel and for research work which would help the country to achieve competitiveness; supporting a basic socio-economic structure in a region; meeting an increasing demand of the population for higher education.


Diliara Valeeva - Research Assistant, International Laboratory for Institutional Analysis of Economic Reforms, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 24 Myasnitskaya str., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation. E-mail: dvaleeva@hse.ru

Oleg Poldin - Research Fellow, International Laboratory for Institutional Analysis of Economic Reforms, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 25/12 Bolshaya Pecherskaya str., Nizhny Novgorod, 603155, Russian Federation. E-mail: opoldin@hse.ru

Maria Yudkevich - Vice Rector, Director Center for Institutional Studies, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 11 Pokrovskiy blv., Moscow, 109028, Russian Federation. E-mail: yudkevich@hse.ru

The authors explore characteristics of social relationships (friendly relation­ships and relationships of assistance while studying) between students of the school of economics of one of Russian universities. Within this study fellow students with whom a certain student spends most of his or her time were considered to be his or her friends. An assistant at university is a fellow student whom students ask for help in their studies most of all. Data on a structure of relationships in student groups were collected by means of a questionnaire. In order to analyze a distinction between friendship networks and assistance networks at university, an exponential random graph modeling (ERGM) method was used. The authors show that both networks are characterized by reciprocity of relationships and that in both networks relationships have a tendency to form triads. Probability of a relationship between students depends to a great extent on their belonging to one training group and one sex. Students ask for help and are on friendly terms with those fellow students who have academic achievements of the same level as they do. Academically successful students are popular in the assistance network but not in the friendship network. The received results are analyzed in terms of their meaning for co-education effects. Characteristics of reciprocity of relationships, as well as of their isolation in triads, are important for interpreting the ways the co-education effects can distribute. It looks like the greatest influence on a certain student’s achievements his reciprocal friends and assistants can have, and also his immediate environment density. Students studying on a commercial basis are more likely to form friendship networks, while students studying in state-funded places are more likely to form assistance networks. Students of different modes of study seem to build their social relationships in different ways, and so influence of peers on students of different modes of study is different. The authors arrive at a conclusion that in the analysis of co-education effects it is neces­sary to take into consideration a role different relationships play in distributing these effects, as well as internal features of networks according to which social relationships are built, and also mechanisms of gaining popularity and influence among students.

Social Networks Research in Higher Education

Susan Biancani - Research Fellow, School of Education, Stanford University. E-mail: biancani@standford.edu

Daniel A. McFarland - Research Fellow, School of Education, Stanford University. E-mail: mcfarland@stanford.edu

Address: School of Education, Stanford University, 485 Lasuen Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

This chapter describes the literature on social networks in higher education from both an analytical and empirical perspective. The literature is organized in such a way: Descriptive work, work that uses networks as a dependent variable, and work that uses networks as an independent variable. Several important questions are investigated in this literature, including students’ attitudes on race, factors influencing student achievement, and the role online social networks play in students’ lives. Homophily and propinquity play important roles in promoting ties between individuals — here, friendship ties among students. At the same time, the effects of homophily can be overcome: additional exposure to classmates from different backgrounds makes students more likely to form friendships that cross racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries. Moreover, this additional exposure also may promote more open-minded attitudes among students toward classmates of different races than their own. Interestingly, one key mechanism in overcoming the effect of homophily is propinquity: Being roommates or dorm-mates with diverse others increases the likelihood of becoming friends with them. Scholarship has also demonstrated that a strong set of connections to classmates is important for students’ success and happiness in school. While the literature on student social networks in institutions of higher education provides numerous useful insights, the field remains fragmented. In part, this is because the field lacks broad, synthetic works that integrate these multiple perspectives.


Ekaterina Krekhovets - Postgraduate Student, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Economics, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Branch in Nizhny Novgorod. Address: 25/12 Bolshaya Pecherskaya str., Nizhny Novgorod, 603155, Russian Federation. E-mail: krekhovets@hse.ru

Oleg Poldin - Research Fellow, International Laboratory for Institutional Analysis of Economic Reforms, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 24 Myasnitskaya str., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation. E-mail: opoldin@hse.ru

The article is an introduction to a range of problems of an empirical analysis of social media of higher education institutions’ students. In the first part of the article basic definitions are given, and key statistical characteristics of social media are described — such as network density, a network degree, the degree distribution, a walk, a distance, a diameter, a clustering coefficient, centrality. Then two approaches to social media modelling are described and examples of some particular models are given. Models where a network is considered to be a multidimensional dependent variable (random graph exponential models, stochastic actor-oriented models and so on) explain the associations by agents’ characteristics and network statistics. Models where networks are independent variables (for example, spatial regression models) explain results of an actor’s activity by network properties, results and characteristics of other actors. In the second part of the article a review of empirical studies of students’ so­cial media is given. One of key factors that determine initiation of friendly ties between students is proximity of their characteristics. Students strive for interacting with peers who are somehow like themselves: of one ethnic group, with similar social and economic characteristics and interests. A geographic prox­imity of students’ places of residence, their neighbourhood in a hostel also enhance the likelihood of initiation of friendly ties. Another line of research is con­nected to the analysis of how students’ social media influence their academic progress and behaviour in an academic setting. Empirical studies show that a student setting with a high training level — friends, neighbours in the hostel, fellow students — contribute to a better average score of the student. Influence of other students’ characteristics, behaviour and academic progress on academic progress of the student is referred to as a co-education effect or a setting effect. There are empirical confirmations that the co-education effect has a stronger influence on students’ education process than a social integration, personal achievements or a personal motivation. The student setting influenc­es not only the academic progress but also what courses are selected to study, sports achievements and a general feeling of life satisfaction. Although stu­dents’ social media are predominantly formed under the influence of endoge­nous factors, an appropriate university policy can to some extent contribute to development of friendships between students, and their significance is determined by an influence of co-education effects on students’ academic progress.


Vera Titkova - Junior Research Fellow, Research Laboratory of Sociology in Education and Science, HSE Campus in St. Petersburg, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: tvera.v@gmail.com

Valeriya Ivaniushina - Leading Research Fellow, Research Laboratory of Sociology in Education and Science, HSE Campus in St. Petersburg, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: v.ivaniushina@gmail.com

Daniil Alexandrov - Professor, Laboratory Head, Research Laboratory of Sociology in Education and Science; Deputy Director, HSE Campus in St. Petersburg, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: da1581@gmail.com

Address: 16 Soyuza pechatnikov str., St. Petersburg, 190121, Russian Federation.

The article explores how pupils’ academic progress and their sociometric popularity are connected depending on a school setting, and namely on an academic context of a class. The fundamental hypothesis was that the academic progress of a pupil contributes to his or her popularity in classes with high motivation, where most children are well disposed towards education, and results in waning popularity in classes with low motivation. The second hypothesis was that the connection between popularity and academic pro­gress was stronger for girls than for boys. The sociometric popularity is de­termined by a number of friendly nominations received by a pupil from his or her classmates. The academic context of a class is defined as an aggregated characteristic of all pupils’ individual academic motivation. To measure individual motivation, the Study involvement scale comprised of 10 questions was used. The academic progress was measured by means of an average score of final marks for a previous term in 5 subjects: Russian language, Algebra, A foreign language, Biology, Physics. In the study 5904 pupils (309 classes, 101 schools of Saint-Petersburg) of the 8–10th grades (14–16 years of age) took part. Data were analyzed by means of a multilevel regression analysis (HLM7). Reliability of the received results was confirmed by a spe­cial dyad analysis for network data (р2). The received results prove a gender specificity of popularity factors. Good progress is more important for girls’ popularity than for boys’ popularity. Girls’ popularity is positively associated with an average score, regardless of a class context. A connection between boys’ marks and their popularity depends on the context: in classes with high academic motivation this association is positive, in classes with low motiva­tion it is negative. The study revealed threshold effects: the context influence becomes apparent only if a class motivation level achieves extreme values. In classes with extremely low academic motivation boys who study well face danger of marginalization. The authors offer to use data concerning popularity of different categories of pupils when evaluating an educational setting quality, in particular to determine problem classes.


Peter Nezhnov - PhD, associate professor. E-mail: nejnoff@gmail.com 

Elena Kardanova - Associate Professor, Senior Researcher, Center for Monitoring of the Quality in Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation. E-mail: kardanova@hse.ru

Lubov Ryabinina - Deputy Director, Center of Quality Assessment in Education. Address: 76 Mira av., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russian Federation. E-mail: ryabinina@kipk.ru

This study was carried out in the context of the cultural development theory worked out by L. S. Vygotsky and his adherents. The authors put forward and empirically tested two hypotheses for the academic content acquisition pro­cess that followed from this theory. The first one concerns an underlying logic of this process, that is an indispensable sequence of its stages and results de­scription of which forms a taxonomy of educational objectives. The study tests the taxonomy that is based on a symbol acquisition level scheme outlined by L. S. Vygotsky and specified by V. V. Davydov and his colleagues in their works. The second hypothesis concerns a temporal property of the acquisition de­fined by two theoretical constructs: the notion of a zone of proximal develop­ment (L. S. Vygotsky), according to which real academic content acquisition extends beyond the training process time frame, and cultural development peri­odization (D. B. Elkonin) which describes how the training is included into the maturation process. The study used a set of level school tests developed by a group of Russian experts who were guided by the cultural development theory — Student Achievement Monitoring (SAM). Pupils of different ages from different regions of Russia were tested for acquisition of the Elementary School Mathematics and Russian language program. The first hypothesis was tested as part of a paper test appraisal in some regions of the Russian Federation in spring of 2012. More than 5000 fourth-grade pupils of comprehensive schools took part in the appraisal process. The second hypothesis was tested as part of a special study comprised of two stages. At the first stage SAM tests of Mathe­matics and Russian language were given to the 4th, 6th, 8th and 10th grade pu­pils. At the second stage, in a year, the same pupils took the same tests, and repeated cross sections were formed. The study results on the whole support the offered level scheme: as regards most units of tasks that are formed ac­cording to criteria specified in the taxonomy, the tasks of the first, second and third levels create a corresponding hierarchy in terms of complexity. And what is more, in most cases the complexity increase from the first level to the sec­ond and to the third levels is clearly statistically significant. The received re­sults also validate the hypothesis that the acquisition process is considerably outside the scope of training in itself: full acquisition of the elementary school academic content takes place approximately by the end of the middle school.


Gordey Yastrebov - Senior Research Fellow, Laboratory for Comparative Analysis of Post-Socialist Development, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: gordey.yastrebov@gmail.com

Alexey Bessudnov - Research Fellow, Centre for Advanced Studies, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: abessudnov@hse.ru

Marina Pinskaya - Leading Research Fellow, Centre of Social and Economic School Development, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: m-pinskaya@yandex.ru

Sergey Kosaretsky - Director, Center of Social and Economic School Development, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: skosaretski@hse.ru 

Address: 20, Myasnitskaya st., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation.

The authors discuss a conceptual framework of educational results’ contextualization, that is of account taken when formulating education policy of the fact of differentiating schools according to pupils’ social and economic char­acteristics, as well as according to the schools’ physical and human resourc­es. There is an extensive literature review in the article where the authors analyze in detail foreign and national hands-on experiences of account taken of territory factors in educational inequality studies. In Russia the basic problem that didn’t let to work out an accurate and differential estimate of territory de­velopment at the level of municipal units until quite recently was an absence of the corresponding statistics. In 2011 the Russian Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat) for the first time opened access to a database with information from municipal units’ statistical passports. The authors analyze how differences in educational results between Russian schools are connected to their differences in 1) social and economic characteristics of pupils and their families; 2) physical and human resources; 3) certain territory development indicators depending on where the schools are situated. The authors used data from so­cial passports collected during surveys in schools of the Moscow and the Yaroslav regions in 2011–2012, as well as municipal statistics data which enable to estimate a level of social and economic deprivation in settlements of different types on the basis of a limited set of indicators. In the statistical analysis a two-level regression model was used. A multilevel analysis enables first of all to find out how variables measured at the level of both schools and settle­ments are connected to an average mark for Unified state exam; in the second place it enables to check if a nature of connection between variables meas­ured at the level of schools and the average mark for USE depends on charac­teristics of the settlements (by means of interaction effects); and in the third place it enables to estimate to what extent a connection between characteristics of schools and the average mark for USE in different settlements is different (by means of the so-called random effects). The analysis results make it possible to state that the academic progress determined on the basis of aver age marks for Russian language and Mathematics USE is indeed consistently different in schools with 1) different social structure and 2) different physical and human resources. A level of territory deprivation in itself does not influence educational results: typically poor training outcomes that are observed for example in country schools can be explained by resource scarcity and their specific social structure characteristics.



Konstantin Ushakov - Professor, Department of Educational Programmes National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation. E-mail: kushakov@hse.ru

Study of the Russian schools’ real structure is considered to be an important internal resource of their development. The notion of «real structure» integrates formalized and non-formalized professional relationships in an educational in­stitution. Statement of this problem is connected to the pressing topic of the teacher’s professional loneliness, that is to a low level of institutions’ social capital. The professional loneliness of teachers results in the situation when the most urgent task of educators’ professional development, of human cap­ital formation is mostly fulfilled at the expense of external resources (training in external organizations). But there are problems here in terms of both finan­cial restrictions and poor professional development system performance. Internal resources of the educational institution (observation of other profession­al practices, reflection, peer tuition) are hard to access because of a low level of social capital and often do not constitute the focus of attention for heads of schools. The author considers not only reasons for the institutions’ real structure study, but also a toolkit which enables to appraise workplace stable relationships in the institution, their configurations and other characteristics of network structures. The study uses both traditional socio-demographic characteristics and network analysis elements. The author makes the assumption that the institution’s real structure is simple (has a low level of complexity), considers it to be a social network and thinks that this simplicity can be a critical deterrent to development of a certain institution. Then complication of real structures is an important resource in terms of improving effectiveness of training and education and contributes to growth of social and consequently human capital at school. A pilot phase, carried out on the basis of five Russian schools in different regions, revealed that real interaction structures are indeed characterized by a low level of complexity, one-way relationships are prevalent in school communities, a percentage of reciprocal relationships is insignificant, a dyad constitutes a typical configuration of reciprocal relationships, a number of triads is greatly limited. During 2013–2014 the author expects to involve a considerable number of general education institutions which will make it possible to identify common problems of real structures in the secondary level education system on the whole.


Anatoly Kasprzhak - Director, Center of Leadership Development in Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 13 Milyutinskiy bystr., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation. E-mail: agkasprzhak@hse.ru

The article deals with the analysis of barriers which do not let to form the Russian teacher training system in line with today’s requirements. The author con­siders reforms of teacher training systems in 12 countries of Asia, Europe and North America which were carried out during last decades of the XXth century: grounds for these reforms, main trends of changes that took place, their nodal elements which in the author’s opinion need to be taken into account when planning a teacher training reform in Russia. All actions of reformers come to three main directions: a system of measures aimed at increasing teachers’ oc­cupational prestige, a package of measures aimed at retention of teachers in schools and transition to such a design of teacher training educational pro­grammes that would help with performing the first two tasks. The reforms resulted in the following changes: the teacher training system ceased to be departmental, and a base unit (a design unit) is now an educational programme ready for continuous variation, and not a structure which fulfills it. The author discuss­es such indicators of occupational prestige as teacher wage rates in different countries and a training level of applicants at teacher training higher education institutions. There are systems of measures in many countries which have a good track record and make the occupation look attractive for youth: monthly allowances for pupils in the final year of secondary school under the condi­tion that after graduating from a higher education institution they will work not less than three years at school; a special enrollment procedure for those who apply for teacher educational programmes which includes, along with a cen­tralized testing, interviews — in order to appraise acceptability for the teaching profession — creativity competitions, recommendations are requested; possi­bility to get a teacher education in dif ferent ways; provision of career oppor tu­nities. The ar ticle shows that there are no institutional arr angements in Russia which would ensure youth retention in the occupation. All changes, including positive ones (formation of a training system for new experts in terms of the Rus­sian school — psychologists, tutors, consultants), are extraordinarily difficult to formalize as legislative acts. And if it still happens, then a new standard is given as a rule according to the old logic which rigidly determines a type of a per­former’s activity. Under such conditions rise of any institutions which would en­courage initiatives, reflection concerning results of an innovative search, would induce transformation of the existing structures is just impossible.


Katerina Polivanova - Professor, Institute for Educational Studies, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation. E-mail: kpolivanova@mail.ru

Elena Sazonova - Postgraduate student, Psychological Institute of Russian educational academy. Address: 9 Mokhovaya str., Moscow, 119019, Russian Federation. E-mail: sazonova_ev@mail.ru

Marta Shakarova - Ph.D, Researcher at Recruiting Company «Beagle». Address: 19 Leninskaya sloboda str., Moscow, 115280, Russian Federation. E-mail: roxish@mail.ru

The authors interpret the fact that modern kids’ maturation conditions change as compared to conditions in which their parents grew up as deepening of «the childhood crisis». Modern kids’ maturation is mediated to a much lesser extent by clear and well-defined development prospects, by close relations with adults. And by the authors’ hypothesis, cultural texts start act as child development mediators. In this regard an issue concerning a developmental potential of these texts is raised. The authors give reasons for necessity of new developmental psychology research in the context of a culture-historical theory that would be based on updated data. Two empirical studies are described. An analysis of a preschoolers’ game inspired by plots of modern animated series revealed, in the first place, a possibility in principle to organize games with the develop­mental potential on the basis of modern animated cartoons, and in the second place, a kids’ ability to use for their games plots where relations between characters are complicated and mixed. These data expand the notion of a child’s play prototype, and so far it was considered to be a fairytale with well-defined boundaries of good and evil. Modern kids can reproduce while playing more sophisticated and more complicated relations between characters. To find out why books about Harry Potter written by J. Rowling are so popular with adoles­cents, pupils of the 8th-10th grades were interviewed, as well as participants of Internet forums on Potteriana. Respondents also took some projective tests. It turns out that for adolescents an initiative action, an outstanding, heroic deed with an unknown result has a great appeal. Besides, the adolescents attribute a possibility of such an action to a fantasy, magic world, аnd as for the physi­cal reality, they qualify it as gray and dull. On the basis of these findings the au­thors draw a conclusion that modern cultural texts imply a sophisticated spectator and reader, give freedom and openness, offer to take action in a situation of ambiguity and uncertainty; that is to say, they form a non-didactic mode of interaction in principle. Modern cultural texts for kids and adolescents have the developmental potential but are ignored by an educational system.

Education Statistics and Sociology


Olga Ozerova - Department Head, Department for Statistics of Education, Institute for Statistical Studies and the Economics of Knowledge, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: National Research University Higher School of Economics, 11 Pokrovka str., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation. E-mail: oozerova@hse.ru

Dinara Borodina - Senior Research Fellow, Centre for Statistics and Monitoring of Education, Institute for Statistical Studies and the Economics of Knowledge, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: National Research University Higher School of Economics, 20 Myasnitskaya str., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation. E-mail: dborodina@hse.ru

Significance of further vocational education in public life is determined by its influence on economic competitiveness, intellectual potential reproduction and social security system. All branches of government, an educational com­munity, employers and employees recognize the importance and need for development and improvement of the FVE sphere. In order to efficiently develop this segment of the educational services market, there should be some indi­cators which would make it possible to analyze the current state of the further vocational education system and its development, to defend key economic and policy decisions of all related participants/agents, to compare nation­al indicators with results of further vocational education development in other countries, to search for, to generalize and to apply the best experience. The authors give an analysis of statistical indicators which characterize further vo­cational education as a segment of the educational services market, as well as financing strategies used by heads of educational institutions in this sphere. On the basis of federal statistical survey data on form No. 1 (personnel) “Information about further vocational education of workers in organizations” devel­oped once every three or four years (the latest reported data are for 2010), the following indicators are given in the article: a number of those who received training, their age and sex patterns, educational enrollment rates distinguished by worker groups, by modes of study (off-job or on-job training) and by duration of training programmes. Learning strategies are analyzed depending on a worker group and an age group. On the basis of an integrated survey of living conditions of the public carried out by the Russian Federal State Statistics Ser­vice (Rosstat) in September of 2011, the public participation in further vocation­al education is analyzed by age groups, employment situations, labour market status and further education types. The authors also give results of a special poll of heads of educational establishments and institutions where adult fur­ther education programmes are fulfilled. The poll was taken in 2012, as part of the Educational Economy Monitoring. Some financial development trends in further education institutions are considered, as well as their price strategies and discounting policy.


Dmitry Popov - Senior Research Fellow, Center of Education Quality Monitoring, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: dmitry_popov@sociolog.net

Yulia Tyumeneva - Senior Research Fellow, The International Laboratory for Education Policy Analysis at the HSE Graduate School of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: jutu@yandex.ru

Galina Larina - Research Associate, Center of Education Quality Monitoring, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: larina.gala@gmail.com

In previous studies a significant influence of family resources on adolescents’ educational trajectories was repeatedly and convincingly demonstrated. How ever self-efficacy theory and related researches asserted that previous individual achievements and individual interpretation of these achievements noticeably affect career choices. In the article personal achievements, educational expectations and grit as a personal trait of high school students were considered as mediators between family educational resources and students’ educational career decisions. The research design consisted of two repeated measures of high school students: the first observation was done when respondents were 9th grade students (n = 2000), the second one was carried out two years later on the same sample (n = 1 1 56 due to sample attrition). After graduating from 9th grade survey participants were obliged to make a career choice, they could stay in a higher school for another two years, move to an elementary professional school (2-year education) or continue in a vocational secondary school (3-year education). Path analysis was conducted using Mplus Version 6 software. Results showed that family educational resources and students’ expectations are positively related with all three mediators. It was revealed that there is no direct effect of family educational resources on young men edu­cational choices. Family resources influence on adolescents’ career are fully mediated by students’ educational achievements and expectations. In other words self-efficacy and educational expectations can considerably change family resources effect. Grit as a personal trait did not show mediating effect. Further implications for research are also discussed.