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2021. no3

Theoretical and Applied Research

Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Monotowns: Production of Mobility
8–32

Natalya Veselkova, Candidate of Sciences in Sociology, Associate Professor, Department of Applied Sociology, Ural Federal University.
Address: 19 Mira Str., 620002 Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation. E-mail: vesselkova@yandex.ru (corresponding author) 

Mikhail Vandyshev, Candidate of Sciences in Sociology, Associate Professor, Department of Applied Sociology, Ural Federal University.
Address: 19 Mira Str., 620002 Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation. E-mail: m.n.vandyshev@urfu.ru

Elena Pryamikova, Doctor of Sciences in Sociology, Professor, Department of Philosophy, Sociology and Cultural Studies, Ural State Pedagogical University.
Address: 26 Kosmonavtov Ave, 620017 Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation. E-mail: pryamikova@yandex.ru

This article looks into the relationship between education, industry and youth mobility in monotown settings. Information collected during a sociological survey in four Ural monotowns — Krasnoturyinsk, Pervouralsk, Revda (Sverdlovsk Oblast) and Dalmatovo (Kurgan Oblast) — was used as empirical data for the study.
Education can sometimes work “against” the community, as cultural and symbolic capital that young people acquire at secondary or sometimes vocational schools allows them to migrate from their hometowns to larger cities for education purposes. Therefore, better-educated youths are more likely to leave monotowns. At the same time, availability of educational institutions in a monotown provides its citizens with opportunities for personal growth as well as improvement of urban environment. A way out of this seemingly insoluble dilemma could be the policy of civic engagement, which can be implemented provided there are diverse labor market opportunities and a conducive social infrastructure. Planning the cooperation among businesses, education and municipal authorities should be part of the town development strategy, not only the result of decisions handed down by some ministries.
The article also offers an example of a cultural life script: a life story of a respondent whose desire to stay in a small town was only increased by the education she obtained.

33–61

Roman Zvyagintsev, Junior Research Fellow, Pinsky Center of General and Extracurricular Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics; Doctoral Student, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics.
Address: Bld. 10, 16 Potapovsky Ln, 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: rzvyagincev@hse.ru

One of the most important facets of educational inequality is the globally observed wide socioeconomic gap in academic outcomes across schools and individual students. However, there are resilient schools that manage to be effective in adverse circumstances. In order to find out what may stand behind resilience of disadvantaged schools, personality traits of their students are compared to those of students attending schools that perform low in equally challenging contexts. Empirical data for this study was collected in Leningrad Oblast in 2019 and includes information about schools’ academic outcomes and socioeconomic status (SES) as well as students’ personality traits that have been traditionally associated with psychological resilience. Personality traits are assessed using the Academic Resilience Scale (ARS‑30), the academic motivation subscale, and the grit and self-regulation scales. Factor structure of the questionnaires is verified using confirmatory factor analysis.
No differences are revealed in personality traits of students between resilient and non-resilient low-SES schools, which confirms the previous findings that academic resilience is built through managerial strategies of school principals, school and state educational policies, and practices to improve school effectiveness.

62–90

Maria Novikova, Candidate of Sciences in Psychology, Research Fellow, Laboratory for the Study and Prevention of Adolescent Deviance, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics.
Address: Bld. 10, 16 Potapovsky Ln, 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: mnovikova@hse.ru

Arthur Rean, Doctor of Sciences in Psychology, Professor, Director of the Center for Socialization, Family and Prevention of Antisocial Behavior Research, Moscow State Pedagogical University.
Address: 64 Usacheva Str., 119048 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: profrean@yandex.ru

Ivan Konovalov, Research Analyst, Center for Socialization, Family and Prevention of Antisocial Behavior Research, Moscow State Pedagogical University.
Address: 64 Usacheva Str., 119048 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: iv.konovalov@yandex.ru (corresponding author)

This article describes the process of developing instruments to measure school bullying and school climate characteristics as well as presents the results of their evaluation on a sample of 871 middle- and high-school students from a Russian megalopolis. It is shown that bullying prevalence depends on the type of aggressive behavior and involvement, varying from 4% (involvement in physical bullying as a victim or perpetrator) to 45% (involvement in verbal bullying as a bystander). Most often, students get involved in bullying as witnesses, but the number of victims and bullies is not significantly lower. On average, 28% of school students initiate bullying and 33% get bullied once or twice a month. Occasional bullying is more typical of girls, while boys are more likely to bully their peers frequently. Middle-school students (seventh and eighth grades) are at the highest risk of being exposed to bullying in all roles. Four aspects of school climate are also analyzed, all of them being significantly negatively related to bullying involvement (regardless of the type of bullying or respondent’s role in a bullying incident).

91–113

Valeria Ershova, Master’s Student, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics.
E-mail: vsershova@edu.hse.ru

Iuliia Gerasimova, Research Intern, International Laboratory for Evaluation of Practices and Innovations in Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: ygerasimova@hse.ru (corresponding author)

Anastasia Kapuza, Research Fellow, International Laboratory for Evaluation of Practices and Innovations in Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: akapuza@hse.ru

Address: Bld. 10, 16 Potapovsky Ln, 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education research indicates a gender gap in how students perceive their mathematical ability. Even when there are no gender disparities in math achievement, girls tend to have lower expectations of success and lower self-reported proficiency in the subject than boys. Empirical findings show that development of growth mindset could bridge the gender gap in students’ perceptions of their mathematical ability and enhance girls’ interest in math. Formative feedback is one of the possible tools to foster the development of growth mindsets.
This study investigates the impact of an e-learning platform with automated feedback on the development of growth mindsets in elementary school children. Empirical data was collected during an experiment which involved 6,300 third grade students from 343 regional schools in Russia. Statistically significant differences were revealed between students in the control group and those who used the e-learning platform (experimental group). However, the effects of using the platform were significantly lower for girls than boys.
The results obtained in this study point to the great potential of e-learning platforms with instant feedback in fostering growth mindsets in mathematics among elementary school children. Furthermore, it appears vital to integrate tailored feedback for boys and girls to mitigate gender differences in school math education.

Measuring Teacher Students’ Psychological Readiness for Professional Life
114–137

Andrey Samoderzhenkov, Master of Psychology, Analyst, Center for Psychometrics and Measurements in Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: asamoderzhenkov@hse.ru (corresponding author)

Elena Kardanova, Candidate of Sciences in Mathematical Physics, Director of the Center for Psychometrics and Measurements in Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: ekardanova@hse.ru

Akmaral Satova, Doctor of Sciences in Psychology, Professor, Head of the Department of General and Applied Psychology, Abai Kazakh National Pedagogical University. Address: 050010, Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty, Dostyk аve., 13. E-mail: satova57@mail.ru

Ekaterina Orel, Candidate of Sciences in Psychology, Senior Research Fellow, Center for Psychometrics and Measurements in Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: eorel@hse.ru

Alena Kulikova, Candidate of Sciences in Education, Junior Research Fellow, Center for Psychometrics and Measurements in Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: aponomareva@hse.ru

Gulmira Mombiyeva, Master of Psychology, Assistant Professor, Department of General and Applied Psychology, Abai Kazakh National Pedagogical University. Address: 050010, Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty, Dostyk аve., 13. E-mail: gumi‑74@mail.ru

Gulnur Kazakhbaeva, Master of Psychology, Teacher, Department of General and Applied Psychology, Abai Kazakh National Pedagogical University. Address: 050010, Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty, Dostyk аve., 13. E-mail: emovea_kz@mail.ru

Ainur Duisenbayeva, Master of Psychology, Assistant Professor, Department of General and Applied Psychology, Abai Kazakh National Pedagogical University. Address: 050010, Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty, Dostyk аve., 13. E-mail: aikoke81@mail.ru

In this paper, psychological readiness of teacher students for professional life is understood as a set of personal characteristics such as personality traits, motivation, attitudes and values that contribute to successful teaching. This operational definition does not include teacher’s subject knowledge or teaching skills. The study explores a number of unique evaluation methods to diagnose components of students’ psychological readiness for teaching. The selected methods were localized for Russia and Kazakhstan and tested on national samples from both countries. Psychometric characteristics of these methods were analyzed using classical test theory and item response theory (IRT). A procedure was developed for calculating an integrated index reflecting student’s psychological readiness for starting a teaching career.

138–167

Ksenia Rozhkova, Junior Research Fellow, Laboratory for Labor Market Studies, Faculty of Economic Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: krozhkova@hse.ru (corresponding author)

Sergey Roshchin, Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Head of the Laboratory for Labor Market Studies, Faculty of Economic Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: sroshchin@hse.ru

Address: 11 Pokrovsky Blvd, 109028 Moscow, Russian Federation.

The article presents a review of literature systematizing findings on the contribution of non-cognitive skills to higher education choice-making. The concept of higher education choice-making in this paper embraces the decision to embark on a college degree, the probability of successful degree completion, the choice of academic discipline, and other related aspects. A priority focus is given to publications in economics since the economic approach differs a lot from approaches in other social sciences.
In addition, the article explores the methodological characteristics of non-cognitive skills research in economics. The results of literature analysis point to the relevance of non-cognitive skills in explaining individual educational choices and allow drawing some inferences for education policy.

168–188

Natalya Volkova, Candidate of Sciences in Psychology, Associate Professor, Department of Management, National Research University Higher School of Economics (St. Petersburg). Address: Bld. 1, 3 Kantemirovskaya Str., 194100 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. E-mail: nv.volkova@hse.ru (corresponding author)

Natalya Zaichenko, Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, Professor, Department of Public Administration, National Research University Higher School of Economics (St. Petersburg). Address: 17 Promyshlennaya Str., 198088 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. E-mail: zanat@hse.ru

Vera Chiker, Candidate of Sciences in Psychology, Senior Research Fellow, Associate Professor, Department of Social Psychology, Saint Petersburg State University. Address: 6 Makarova Emb, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. E-mail: vchiker@yandex.ru

Oksana Gyuninen, Highly-Trained Educational Psychologist, Director of the Center for Psychological, Pedagogical, Medical and Social Assistance, Kolpino District, St. Petersburg. Address: Bld. 2, 32 Very Slutskoy Str., 196653 Kolpino, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. E-mail: oks.giun@gmail.com

A sample of 295 teachers from six educational institutions in the town of Kolpino (Kolpino District, St. Petersburg) is used to explore school teachers’ perception of talent management policies and practices as elements of the school’s organizational culture and to analyze linkages between such practices and teachers’ organizational commitment. 
The study relied on the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) developed by Lyman W. Porter and the new Talent Management in Education questionnaire by Brent Davies and Barbara J. Davies. The latter was adapted for the Russian sample, evidence of the method’s reliability and construct validity being provided in the article. 
Results show that organizational commitment of teachers is higher in schools where leaders foster professional development, collaboration and collegial decision making. Years of teaching experience do not affect organizational commitment, but younger teachers are more committed to their schools than their older colleagues. Teacher commitment to educational institutions was also found to be predicted by whether teachers perceive talent management practices as elements of the school’s organizational culture.

Education Statistics and Sociology

189–211

Oleg Fedorov, Candidate of Sciences in History, Associate Professor, Director of the Siberian Institute of Management, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA).
Address: 6 Nizhegorodskaya Str., 630102 Novosibirsk, Russian Federation. E-mail: fedorov-od@ranepa.ru (corresponding author)

Ksenia Verinchuk, History Teacher, European Gymnasium. Address: 28 Sokolnicheskiy Val Str., 107113 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: k.verinchuk@gmail.com

The Unified State Exam (USE) in Russia is both an achievement and admission test, yet its validity has not been looked into on a large scale. The evolution of USE tests is distinctly marked by a growing number of constructed-response items, which might be affecting the validity of test results in many ways.
In-depth semi-structured interviews with 36 USE experts in history allow identifying three major threats to USE validity: assessment criteria for items 24 and 25, item content, and expert bias. Interview transcripts were analyzed using content analysis, the results of which are presented along with recommendations on how to further improve the processes of item design and evaluation.

Russian School Principals’ Beliefs about Digital Competences of Educational Process’ Participants
212–236

Andrey Deryabin, MSc Social Psychology, Research Fellow, Center for Socialization and Personalization of Children’s Education, Federal Institute for the Development of Education, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA); Teaching Assistant, Department of Sociology and Mass Communication, Novosibirsk State Technical University.
Address: Bld. 1, 9 Chernyakhovskogo Str., 125319 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: deryabin-aa@ranepa.ru (corresponding author)

Ilya Boytsov, PhD student, Department of Applied Economics, Faculty of Economic Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address:11 Pokrovsky Blvd, 109028 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: iboytsov@hse.ru

Aleksandr Popov, Doctor of Sciences in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Head of the Open Education Research Sector, Center for Socialization and Personalization of Children’s Education, Federal Institute for the Development of Education, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA); Head of the Laboratory for Competency-Based Approach in Teaching, Institute of System Projects, Moscow City University; Professor, Department of Sociology and Mass Communication, Novosibirsk State Technical University.
Address: Bld. 1, 9 Chernyakhovskogo Str., 125319 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: popov-aa@ranepa.ru

Pavel Rabinovich, Candidate of Sciences in Engineering, Associate Professor, Director of the Center for Project and Digital Development in Education, Institute for Social Sciences, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA). Address: Bld. 2, 82 Vernadskogo Ave, 119602 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: pavel@rabinovitch.ru

Kirill Zavedensky, Deputy Director of the Center for Project and Digital Development in Education, Institute for Social Sciences, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA). Address: Bld. 2, 82 Vernadskogo Ave, 119602 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: kirillzav3@gmail.com

This study investigates into Russian school principals’ beliefs about the requirements that digital transformation of schools imposes on students, parents, educators and administrators. Answers to an open-ended questionnaire obtained from 7,189 schools representing all administrative districts of the Russian Federation were analyzed using natural language processing technology. Responses were categorized according to the European Framework for the Digital Competence of Educators (DigCompEdu).
In general, responses reflect the use of information technology by the relevant groups of participants in the educational process, educators assigning the greatest significance to selection and distribution of educational content, students to information search and communication, parents to communication, control and safety, and administrators to digital interactions. However, the spectrum of digital competences attributed by respondents to every group of participants in the educational process is rather narrow. Low occurrence of most DigCompEdu framework categories in questionnaire responses allows to conclude that school principals have a poor understanding of many important dimensions of digital competences.

Practice

Provisions Supporting Dialectical Thinking and Emotion Comprehension in Kindergarten Settings
237–259

Anastasia Belolutskaya, Candidate of Sciences in Psychology, Head of the Laboratory of Professional Competence Assessment and Adult Development, Research Institute of Urban Studies and Global Education, Moscow City University. Address: 4 Vtoroy Selskokhozyaystvenny Pass, 129226 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: beloluckayaak@mgpu.ru

Tatiana Le-van, Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher, Laboratory of Child Development, Research Institute of Urban Studies and Global Education, Moscow City University. Address: 4 Vtoroy Selskokhozyaystvenny Pass, 129226 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: LevanTN@mgpu.ru

Sergey Zadadaev, Candidate of Sciences in Mathematical Physics, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Mathematics, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation. Address: 49 Leningradsky Ave, 125993 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: szadadaev@fa.ru

Olga Shiyan, Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, Leading Researcher, Laboratory of Child Development, Research Institute of Urban Studies and Global Education, Moscow City University. Address: 4 Vtoroy Selskokhozyaystvenny Pass, 129226 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: shiyanoa@mgpu.ru

Igor Shiyan, Candidate of Sciences in Psychology, Deputy Director of the Research Institute of Urban Studies and Global Education, Head of the Laboratory of Child Development, Moscow City University. Address: 4 Vtoroy Selskokhozyaystvenny Pass, 129226 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: ShiyanIB@mgpu.ru (corresponding author)

This paper explores the correlations between provisions created by teachers to support dialectical thinking and emotion comprehension in the learning environment of preschool institutions. Particularly, it describes the instruments designed by researchers at Moscow City University’s Laboratory of Child Development to assess the characteristics of preschool learning environment that promote dialectical thinking and emotion comprehension of children. Assessment scales were constructed using the principles underlying the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS‑3). This article presents the results of validation of the developed assessment tools, which involved the contrasting groups method, analysis of expert scores consistency, and calculation of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha).
Than the validated tools were used to test the hypothesis that preschool teachers who create provisions to support emotion comprehension in children are significantly more likely to also support provisions for dialectical thinking. The sample consisted of 31 preschool student groups from 23 educational institutions representing nine administrative districts of Moscow, with both low- and high-quality learning environments. Correlation analysis was used to demonstrate a strong relationship between preschool settings necessary to develop emotion comprehension and dialectical thinking of children. The findings of this study allow recommending the designed tools to be used for assessment of kindergarten learning environments and can serve as the basis for reconceptualizing the pedagogical framework of supporting emotional and cognitive development of children to make it more coherent and consistently embracing the psychological characteristics of preschoolers.

Participatory Design of New School Learning Environments
260–283

Oksana Ostroverkh, Candidate of Sciences in Psychology, Associate Professor, Institute of Economics, Management and Environmental Studies, Siberian Federal University. Address: 79 Svobodny Ave, 660041 Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation. E-mail: ostrovoksana@mail.ru (corresponding author)

Anna Tikhomirova, Individual and Group Psychology Teacher, Faculty of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education. Address: 29 Sretenka Str., 127051 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: nutih@mail.ru

This article looks into the legal and psychological aspects of child and youth participation in discussions and decision making on issues relating to their lives and gives an overview of the current trends in participatory development.
Participatory design is interpreted within this study as activities that result in participatory action of children in the educational process. Participatory action is characterized in its intentional component and its persistence (reflected in searching for ways of bringing the intention to life) by initiative, consciousness, autonomy and responsibility. Participatory design is regarded as a tool for creating conditions to develop adolescents’ subject position.
A new method of engaging children in participatory design of learning environments is offered and implemented in the study. The article describes successively the steps of method implementation and its testing within the framework of Pedagogical Design Studio’s activities.

Book Reviews and Survey Articles

284–297

Svetlana Dubrovskaya, Doctor of Sciences in Philology, Professor, Department of Russian as a Foreign Language, Ogarev Mordovia State University. Address: 68 Bolshevistskaya Str., 430005, Saransk, Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation. E-mail: s.dubrovskaya@bk.ru (corresponding author)

Oleg Osovsky, Doctor of Sciences in Philology, Professor, Leading Researcher, Evseviev Mordovia State Pedagogical University. Address: 11A Studencheskaya Str., 430007, Saransk, Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation. E-mail: osovskiy_oleg@mail.ru

A detailed analysis of the collective monograph Bakhtin in the Fullness of Time: Bakhtinian Theory and the Process of Social Education is performed in this article, involving reflections on the place and meaning of the ideas of Mikhail Bakhtin (1895–1975) for theory and practice of Western education in the recent decades. Three major topics are covered in the book. The first one has to do with identifying the philosophical and sociocultural sources that preceded the formation of Bakhtin’s early views and largely predetermined his response to challenges of the time in his early philosophical texts and in his books about Dostoevsky and the genre of Bildungsroman. Another topic is Bakhtin’s dialogue with his contemporaries. Sometimes, this dialogue was open and active, sharply polemical, as in the situation with the latest aesthetic and literary trends of the early 1920s in Russia; at other times, however, it was “inaudible”, so researchers can only attempt to reconstruct it based on the consonance between the ideas of Bakhtin and those of Lev Vygotsky or Paulo Freire. The third topic is the transformation of Bakhtinian theory into teaching practice, whether it is about using dialogue and its potential in teaching foreign students, providing educational opportunities for the most economically vulnerable social groups in South Africa, or communicating with preschoolers in a kindergarten.
The authors of the book managed to create a convincing picture of how Bakhtinian theory is becoming a key element of today’s educational research and practice. Importantly, it is not only Bakhtin’s ideas as such — the concepts of dialogue, polyphony, carnival and chronotope in the first place — that matter: there is also the unrestrained polyvocality which is indispensable for any creative practice.