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2019. no2

Theoretical and Applied Research

8–34

Hans de Wit – PhD, Director of the Center for International Higher Education (CIHE) and Professor of the Practice at the Lynch School of Education at Boston College. Address: 140 Commonwealth Ave, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467. E-mail: dewitj@bc.edu

Internationalization as a concept and strategic agenda is a relatively new but broad and varied phenomenon, driven by a dynamic combination of political, economic, socio-cultural and academic rationales and stakeholders. This article addresses the following points: What are the historical dimensions of internationalization? What are the key factors in international higher education that are impacted by and impact this phenomenon? How do we understand its evolution as a concept? What national policies are developed to enhance the international competitiveness of higher education? What are the implications for institutional strategies for internationalization? It concludes with some lessons and recommendations for Russian higher education to learn from these trends and issues concerning internationalization in higher education.

35–77

Mikhail Sokolov — Candidate of Sciences in Sociology, Professor, European University at St. Petersburg. Address: 6/1a Gagarinskaya Str., 191187 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. E-mail: msokolov@eu.spb.ru

The article explores the relationship between academic career structure and labor market organization characterizing different national academic systems. Selective and transformative systems are described as two opposite ideal types. The principal constitutive difference between them is that the selective system requires scholars to move between organizations at least ones during their academic career, and introduces time limits for staying at the lower steps of the academic ladder, while transformative systems do not prohibit inbreeding or ban staying indefinitely at lower academic ranks. The academic systems of Great Britain, Germany, Russia, USA, and France are used to demonstrate how this fundamental difference is related to many other parameters of institutional organization of national academic worlds, such as labor market competitiveness, selection procedures complexity, whether the labor market is driven by supply or demand, the level of geographic mobility, the presence of tenure, the role of formal indicators in academic productivity assessment, and the overall status of the academic profession.

78–97

Maria Novikova — PhD in Psychology, Research Fellow of the Laboratory for Asocial Behavior Prevention, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: mnovikova@hse.ru

Arthur Rean — PhD in Psychology, Professor at the Psychology Chair, Head of the Laboratory for Asocial Behavior Prevention, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: arean@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

The phenomenon of school bullying is considered from the point of its connection with the domains of school climate. Main characteristics of school bullying are given, specifically its prevalence, age, gender and socio-economical correlates, as well as effectiveness of most common anti-bullying programmes. Social relationships, both student–teacher and peer-to-peer are discussed as a significant factor of victimisation. Particularly data on teachers’ perspectives on bullying, their main preferred strategies of coping with respective situations in classroom and characteristics of relations with students which affect the risk of victimisation of the latter are in the main focus. The paper is analytically designed and based mostly on the findings presented in the past 10 years research, both Russian and foreign.

98–128

Elena Varshavskaya — Doctor of Sciences in Economics, Professor, Department of Human Resource Management, School of Business Administration, Faculty of Business and Management, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: evarshavskaya@hse.ru

Elena Kotyrlo — Doctor of Sciences in Economics, Associate Professor, Department of Applied Economics, Faculty of Economic Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: ekotyrlo@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

Microdata from the National Employment Survey of 2010–2015 Vocational and University Graduates conducted by the Russian Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat) in April–September 2016 is used to analyze the study-to-work transition of graduates in engineering and economics. Transition effectiveness is used to estimate the ratio of demand and supply of graduates’ labor. Research methods include descriptive and regression analysis.

Statistical analysis of macro data shows that the number of skilled engineers who obtained degrees in 1990–2000 exceeded the number of engineers exiting the labor force upon reaching the age of retirement during that period. While aggregate supply of engineering workforce was growing during the post-reform era, demand for their labor was shrinking―mostly due to a considerable decline in industrial jobs.

It has been established that chances of getting a job, average time that it takes to find one, and the degree of first-job educational and skill match are pretty much the same for young qualified engineers and economists. No statistically significant difference has been observed between their starting salaries, either. Therefore, no evidence has been found to support the hypothesis about a high unmet demand for qualified engineers and surplus of workforce in economics and management. The study demonstrates that the reported shortage of engineers has nothing to do with low aggregate supply. Research findings could be used in the design of academic programs for higher education at national and regional scales.

The Modern Rector: Competencies Required in the Global Academic Marketplace


129–158

Pavel Zhdanov — Candidate of Science in Politics, Specialist of the Department of Analytics and Monitoring of the State Autonomous Sociological Research Center. E-mail: zhdanov@5top100.ru

Irina Trostyanskaya — Candidate of Science in Politics, Head of the Analytical Research Department of the State Autonomous Sociological Research Center. E-mail: trostyanskaya@ sociocenter.info

Andrey Barsukov — Head of the Department of Analytics and Monitoring of the State Autonomous Sociological Research Center. E-mail: barsukov@5top100.ru

Nadezhda Polikhina — Acting Director of the State Autonomous Sociological Research Center. E-mail: polihina@sociocenter.info

Address: 50a/8, Zemlyanoy Val Str., Moscow, 109004, Russian Federation.

The article presents the results of studying the competencies of university leaders, including those that ensure university effectiveness in the global academic marketplace. Rector appointment and selection procedures are analyzed across countries. The study uses pre-collected data on careers of 93 university leaders, of which 52 are in charge of Russia’s leading universities (including 21 Project 5–100 institutions) and 41 govern foreign universities ranked in the top 100 of the QS World University Rankings® 2018. The following parameters are analyzed as constituent parts of university leaders’ rectorship experience: working abroad experience, business work experience as Head of Department or higher, academic work experience including top management positions, scientometric indicators, work experience in public service, age, years of teaching and research experience, years of university leadership experience, years of rectorship at another university. Significant differences have been revealed in the competencies possessed by university leaders in Russia and abroad. The rectors of top foreign universities have a more diverse experience in varied fields necessary to ensure university effectiveness, and they also demonstrate higher career mobility.

Practice

Association between the Quality of Teacher-Child Interaction and Language Development


159–178

Aleksander Veraksa — Corresponding Member of RAE, Professor, Doctor of Psychological Sciences, Head of the Chair, Department of Educational Psychology and Pedagogy, Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University. Е-mail: veraksa@ yandex.ru

Margarita Gavrilova — Ph. D. Student in Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University. Е-mail: gavrilovamrg@gmail.com

Daria Bukhalenkova — Junior Researcher, Department of Educational Psychology and Pedagogy, Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University. Е-mail: d.bukhalenkova@inbox.ru

Address: 125009, Moscow, Mokhovaya str., 11/9, Russian Federation.

The article presents a review aimed at studying the relationship between the process quality of the educational environment and the indicators of preschool language development. By process quality is understood the quality of the processes of teacher-child interaction in kindergarten groups (the CLASSTM assessment). The review considers correlation and longitudinal studies. The analysis and systematization of research results is carried out separately for the CLASSTM domains: Instructional Support, Emotional Support and Classroom Organization, which correspond to the emotional, instructional and organizational aspects of teacher-child interactions. The results of the studies testify to the existence of a stable connection between the organizational features of teacher-child interactions and their results of language development. The high level of consistency in the research results testifies to the effectiveness of the method used to assess the process quality of the educational environment — the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASSTM) and the significant effect of process quality on preschool language development. This review can be useful for researchers of the quality of preschool education, since it presents systematic results of studies and information on the effectiveness of methods used in them.

179–198

Mikhail Vandyshev — Candidate of Sciences in Sociology, Associate Professor at the Department of Applied Sociology, Ural Federal University. Address: 19 Mira Str., 620002 Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation. E-mail: m.n.vandyshev@urfu.ru

A survey of 160 school teachers was conducted in Sverdlovsk Region to find out what teachers think about whether immigrant children should be included or not, investigate the problems of inclusive and non-inclusive education for immigrant children, and consider feasible support measures for teachers dealing with this student category. As a social institution, the school responds to growing cultural diversity of the host community, while at the same time stabilizing it by reproducing certain sociocultural identities typical of the region and the country as a whole.

There is no consensus in the teaching community regarding which policy for immigrant children education should be preferred. About one third of the respondents believe such children should not be included since they do not speak the language of teaching (Russian). Meanwhile, 41 percent report that inclusive education makes adaptation and integration easier for immigrant children. Teachers interacting with immigrant children directly specify the problems and challenges associated with the emergence of this new student category: low learning preparedness, including poor knowledge of Russian; confrontations between children with differing migrant backgrounds; conflicts between immigrant and host community parents; difficulties of cultivating relations between teachers and immigrant parents; the precarious legal status of immigrants; and misunderstanding inflicted by differences in traditions, parenting practices and cultural norms that affect behavior. Most respondents (76%) are convinced that public education policy initiatives should prioritize enhancing teachers’ professional competencies. Over half of the respondents find it necessary to increase funding for immigrant children education as well as payment for the teachers involved.

199–225

Olga Boytsova  — Doctor of Sciences in Politics, Professor at the Philosophy of Politics and Law Department, Faculty of Philosophy, Lomonosov Moscow State University; Deputy Chairman of the Central Subject-Specific Methodology Board of the Russian School Student Olympiad in Social Theory. Address: GSP-1, Faculty of Philosophy, Shuvalov Building, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Lenin Hills, 119991 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: olga.boitsova@gmail.com

Dmitry Nosov  — Candidate of Sciences in Philosophy, Professor, School of Philosophy, Faculty of Humanities, National Research University Higher School of Economics; Chairman of the Central Subject-Specific Methodology Board of the Russian School Student Olympiad in Social Theory. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: dnossov@hse.ru

Valeriya Torop  — Candidate of Sciences in History, Associate Professor, Head of the Final State Examination Maintenance Department of the Center for Training Subject-Specific Teachers at Moscow Institute of Open Education; Chairman of the Moscow Subject-Specific Committee for Basic State Examination in Social Theory; member of the Central Subject-Specific Methodology Board of the Russian School Student Olympiad in Social Theory. Address: 36, Timiryazevskaya Str., 127422 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: valeriya73@yandex.ru

Being members of the Central Subject-Specific Methodology Board for the Russian School Student Olympiad in Social Theory and members of the jury for its final round, we discuss the specific aspects of teaching social theory at school and preparing for the Unified State Examination and the Russian Olympiad in that subject. We examine different kinds and types of tasks offered in different rounds of the Olympiad, analyze their pitfalls and ultimate objectives, and discover the opportunities, prospects and challenges of applying the competency-based approach in preparing students for the Russian School Student Olympiad in Social Theory.

Education Statistics and Sociology

Enlightenment Demands of Russians


226–240

Lyubov Dukhanina — Doctor of Sciences in Pedagogy, Chairman of Russian “Znanie” Society, Head of the Department of Pedagogy and Methods of National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute). Address: 31 Kashirskoe Hwy, 115409 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: Duhanina@mail.ru

Aleksandr Maksimenko — Candidate of Science in Psychology, Chairman of Kostroma Regional Branch of the Russian Society of Sociologists. Address: 9a Sovetskaya Str., 156000 Kostroma, Russian Federation. E-mail: Maximenko.Al@gmail.com

The article presents the results of a large-scale survey conducted by Russian “Znanie” Society in 2017. The survey measured citizen awareness of local and national enlightenment initiatives, interest in specific topics and formats of educational events, motivation for learning and development, and willingness to pay for educational products, and it also tested the concept of an online enlightenment portal. We analyze the current globalization trends affecting the formats, topics and technology of enlightenment as well as educational niches that could be of public interest and of benefit to the digital future. Conclusions are made about the most in-demand fields of study and format preferences in learning and development.

241–261

Kseniya Pavlenko — Candidate of Sciences in Sociology, Analyst, Center for Modern Childhood Studies, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: kpavlenko@hse.ru

Katerina Polivanova — Doctor of Sciences in Psychology, Professor, Scientific Advisor of the Center for Modern Childhood Studies, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: kpolivanova@hse.ru

Alexandra Bochaver — Candidate of Sciences in Psychology, Research Fellow, Center for Modern Childhood Studies, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: abochaver@hse.ru

Elizaveta Sivak — Director of the Center for Modern Childhood Studies, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: esivak@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

A questionnaire survey (N= 6,648) and semi-structured interviews with parents of school students in a Russian megalopolis were carried out to analyze how families perceive the functions of extracurricular activities (ECAs), what choice strategies they follow, and what outcomes they expect. The study is premised on the assumption that ECAs for school students are not homogeneous in terms of their mission and expected outcomes. Empirical data is used to examine the compensatory and enriching functions of ECAs. The compensatory function is about closing gaps in school education through providing subject-specific classes. Enriching ECAs engage students beyond the school curriculum, contributing to diversity of the learning environment. Interview analysis allows identifying two major strategies followed by families when choosing enriching ECAs, depending on which type of skills they seek to cultivate in their children, soft (meta-subject competencies) or hard (specific knowledge shaped institutionally).

History of Education

262–292

Lidia Okolskaya — Candidate of Sciences in Sociology, Senior Researcher, Federal Sociology Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences. Address: Bld. 5, 24/35 Krzhizhanovskogo Str., 117218 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: okoli@yandex.ru

This study examines the framework documents capturing the political rhetoric on children as well as different versions of the Russian law on children’s rights to explore how government agencies perceive and treat children as a social group and what social policy values and norms are at play in this field in Russia. The sample includes documents of two genres: general child protection policies and existing laws. Content analysis allows identifying the underlying values and the principles of treating children (universalism, self-direction, benevolence, conservation, openness to change) as well as the methods of social policy (incentivization, normalization, prohibition) that have been reflected in the legislative documents. Analysis of how social policies for children were changing from the 1990s through the 2010s shows that both liberal and conservative trends were present. The liberal trend of the 2010s consisted in taking terms and values from the international legislative experience. In particular, children have come to be recognized as social actors and full-fledged participants of societal processes; the government’s perception of children as a social group has become more individualized; orphanage deinstitutionalization is occurring; children’s need for belonging and love has been acknowledged; the values of autonomy, such as independence and responsibility, are being encouraged in children. The conservative trend in social policies for children manifests itself in a statistically significant growth of support for the traditional values, such as multigenerational households, parental authority, and family loyalty.

Book Reviews and Survey Articles

293–298

Kseniya Belik — Research Intern, Poletayev Institute for Theoretical and Historical Studies in the Humanities, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: Bld. 1, 21/4 Staraya Basmannaya Str., 105066 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: kseniabelik2402@gmail.com

Anatoly Ivanov’s book Scientific Dignity in the Russian Empire. 18th to Early 20th Century. Training and Qualifying Professors and Higher School Teachers gives the idea of academic degree attestation and awarding practices followed by Russian Empire universities. The structure and content of the book are analyzed from the perspective of its research potential and implications for historical science.