2018. no3

Theoretical and Applied Research


Hèctor Alòs i Font — BA in Linguistics, External Collaborator, Center for Sociolinguistics and Communication Research, University of Barcelona. E-mail: hectoralos@gmail.com

Edgar Demetrio Tovar-García — PhD in Economics, Research Professor, Escuela de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad Panamericana. E-mail: dtovar@up.edu.mx

This study examined the relations among trilingualism, bilingualism, and educational achievements of school students in a rural environment in Chuvashia, Russia. Using our survey results of 913 school students of Chuvash ethnicity (67%) and Tatar ethnicity (28%) and ordered logistic regressions we found weak evidence for any positive association between trilingualism or bilingualism and educational achievements. Socio-economic status, cultural capital (approached with number of books at home), health issues, type of settlement, class grade, number of siblings, and gender were controlled. The results also indicated that fluency in Chuvash and in Tatar, mother tongue proficiency, language used at home, and language of instruction in the elementary grades were not adversely related to educational achievements. On the one hand, these findings partially disagree with previous studies, where a positive association was found. It is probable, that the rural versus urban environment explains these differences. On the other hand, the results confirm previous research in the Volga area of Russia that a growing concern among authorities on minority language students’ educational achievements is baseless. It rather suggests that policy-makers should be more concerned with increasing the equality of opportunities provided by the education system to persons of different socio-economic levels.


Liudmila Klimenko — Doctor of Sociology, Associate Professor, Economic Faculty, Southern Federal University. E-mail: lucl@yandex.ru

Oxana Posukhova — Candidate of Sociology, Associate Professor, Institute of Sociology and Regional Studies, Southern Federal University. E-mail: belloks@yandex.ru

The paper is based on a survey of public school teachers in Russian large cities (Moscow, Rostov-on-Don and Kazan). In 2017 the survey was conducted to study the perception of social and economic situation by teachers, and the estimation of the labor precariatization degree. Based on the assessment of their professional identity according to the selected typological criteria (the occupational prestige, the place of professional identity in the general structure of identification, labor motivation, professional values, job satisfaction, career orientations), the prevalence of pseudo-positive identity with diffusion elements is revealed among teachers. Moscow educators, while they evaluate higher the quality of life and the prestige of their work than teachers from Rostov and Kazan, are characterized by a higher degree of dissatisfaction with the content and results of their professional activity. The polyethnicity of the city’s population is not a significant factor in the formation of the interviewed teachers’ identity. Corporate loyalty (rewarded by corporate paternalism), socially oriented motivation, socio-economic vulnerability (especially for province teachers) characterize the existing model of the professional identity in the teaching community. Heavy administrative burden for the teachers’ corps, the high social demands for the results of their work and the precariatization of teacher’s labor create risks for maintaining of the positive professional identity and reduce the reform potential of the school.


Mikhail Goshin — Candidate of Sciences in Chemistry, Analyst, Center of Social and Economic School Development, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: mgoshin@hse.ru

Tatyana Mertsalova — Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogics, Leading Expert, Center of Social and Economic School Development, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: tmertsalova@hse.ru

The article gives an overview of the theoretical models of parental involvement in education. The peculiarities of parent involvement in Russian education are correlated with the typologies proposed by J. L. Epstein. Comparison typologies of parent involvement for different parents’ socio-economic categories was carried out. Low-income families were especially identified. It is shown that despite the fact that children from the poorest families have lower than average educational outcomes, parent involvement promotes their increase in attainment. By increasing the level of involvement that parents have, the more leveled the difference in educational results becomes. Children from the poorest families are significantly less likely to plan go to university after school. At the same time the percentage of children planning to get into higher education considerably increases when parents are involved in their education. The higher the level of parent involvement, the greater the percentage of children oriented towards getting higher education. And the higher the level of parent involvement in education, the less the gap between the low income families and average values for the sample is.


Masood Nawaz Kalyar — PhD, Assistant Professor, Division of Management, Lyallpur Business School, GC University Faisalabad (Pakistan). E-mail: masoodnawaz@gcuf.edu.pk

Bashir Ahmad — PhD, Assistant Professor, Division of Management, Lyallpur Business School, GC University Faisalabad (Pakistan). E-mail: bashirmba84@gmail.com 

Hadiqa Kalyar — MPhil Education, Independent Researcher (Pakistan). E‑mail: kalyar_h@yahoo.com

The overarching purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of teacher motivation on teaching behavior and student motivation. The notion of teacher motivation refers to teachers’ interests, self-efficacy, and mastery goals orientation. Teaching behavior comprises of mastery-oriented and cognitively activating instructional practices, however, student motivation represents students’ interest in subject matter and student mastery-goals orientation. Data were collected from students (n = 434) from public sector elementary schools located in Punjab province of Pakistan, where students were nested within teachers (n = 89). Considering the multilevel nature of the data, multilevel analysis was used to test the hypothesized relationship between the constructs. The findings suggest that all facets of teacher motivation are antecedents of instructional practices as well as student motivation. Being a component of teaching behavior, instructional practices (only mastery-oriented) have strong positive links with student motivation suggesting that mastery oriented instructional practices involve a caring attitude towards students’ interests and learning which in turn result in enhanced motivation among students. Moreover, beyond the direct positive association between teacher motivation and student motivation, mastery-oriented instructional practices also mediate the effect of teacher motivation.


Mikhail Sokolov — Candidate of Sciences in Sociology, Professor, European University at Saint Petersburg. E-mail: msokolov@eu.spb.ru

Sofia Lopatina — PhD candidate, International Max Planck Research School for the Anthropology, Archaeology, and History of Eurasia (IMPRS ANARCHIE). E-mail: lopatina@eth.mpg.de

Gennady Yakovlev — PhD candidate, Department of Political and Social Sciences, European University Institute. E-mail: gennadii.iakovlev@eui.eu

Russian university is treated as a miniature political system in this article. Four hundred charters, statutes and ordinances are analyzed in order to identify three pivotal axes allowing us to classify constitutional frameworks of universities: the axis of independence from the founder, the axis of collegiality, or the balance of power between the rector and the academic council, and the axis of federalization, which shows how decentralized the organizational structure is. Next, it is shown how these variables are interrelated and how their stable sets form types of intra-university political systems—federative, unitary, dual and controlled—which exist or used to exist in Russia. Contrary to the widely held belief that all of the differences between universities can be traced to their position on the scales of “collegiality” (partnership model) and “managerialism” (bureaucratic model) and although public universities do resemble bureaucracies more than partnerships today, different elements of their constitutional design seem to have evolved independently and under the influence of different factors.



Alisa Melikyan — Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Computer Science, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: amelikyan@hse.ru

A survey was carried out in order to analyze the relationship between the universities’ internal factors and the indicators of their education export performance. Quantitative data was collected to describe the activities of Russian universities over recent years. Regression analysis was used to identify relationship between the indicators. The sample consisted of 173 universities from different federal districts of Russia. Achievement of the research goal necessitated the construction and quantitative assessment of various regression model specifications calculated based on how variable values changed over time. Estimates confirm a positive relationship between the number of international network partnerships, the number of double degree programs, and success in education export. The degree of diversification of education programs available to international students correlates negatively with enrollment of foreign students. The cost of educational services and the level of commercialization of higher education for foreign students demonstrate a positive relationship with education export revenues but show no relationship with the number of foreign students in a university. No relationship was found between online presence of universities, implementation of transnational education programs and education export performance. The findings are used to discuss promising vectors of education export development for Russian universities.


Olga Temnyatkina — Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, the Chair for Project Management in Education Systems, Sverdlovsk Oblast Institute for Education Development. E-mail: oltemnyatkina@mail.ru

Daria Tokmeninova — Candidate of Science in Economics, Leading Expert, Education Department, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology. E-mail: dtokmeninova@yandex.ru

The need to develop a national teacher growth system requires that the existing approaches to assessing the quality of teaching be analyzed. This article provides an overview of foreign publications devoted to the problem of teacher performance assessment. Two major approaches are described: assessing teacher performance through student achievement and formative assessment based on teacher observation and follow-up feedback. Foreign researchers believe that there is no reason to expect that student achievement will be in complete alignment with the size and quality of teacher effort, as too many factors beyond the teacher’s control are in play. Some researchers suggest ways to increase the validity of using student attainment data in assessing teacher performance. Formative assessment of students is being gradually introduced into instruction processes, but formative assessment of teacher performance is only beginning to emerge in school practices. This article explores the methods and techniques of formative teacher assessment and presents the first findings on their opportunities and limitations. Most authors of the publications discussed here agree that the system of teacher performance assessment should be organized to foster the professional and personal development of teachers.


Kristina Lyubitskaya — Research Assistant, Center for Modern Childhood Studies, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: klyubitskaya@hse.ru

Marta Shakarova — Candidate of Sciences in Psychology, Specialist, Center for the Prevention of Religious and Ethnic Extremism in Educational Organizations of the Russian Federation, Moscow Pedagogical State University. E-mail: mshakarova@bk.ru

A number of foreign studies in family-school relationships have shown that effective parent-school interaction is a crucial factor of parental school involvement, which, in its turn, has a positive impact on the whole schooling process. In Russia, there is little empirical data on the communication between parents and schools. The article describes the findings of an exploratory research that involved school administrators and parents of students at different levels of school education ( elementary, middle and high school) in a megalopolis of the Central Federal District. Interviews with parents and school representatives as well as parent questionnaire results are used to describe the most popular ways in which parents interact with schools, the main problems they encounter in such interaction, and the degree of parental involvement in school life. Direct contact with teachers is found to be the most efficient channel of parent–school communication. Parents see the main communication problems in disagreement about instruction and education issues and in the disengagement of schools or individual teachers. These problems become more acute in middle and high school. On the whole, the existing level of parental involvement in school is measured as low in this study.

Education Statistics and Sociology


Irina Abankina — Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Professor, Director, Institute for Education Studies, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: abankinai@hse.ru

Liudmila Filatova — Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Senior Researcher, Institute for Education Studies, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: lmfilatova@hse.ru

The article presents the latest changes and modern mechanisms in providing accessibility of pre-school education that relate to the tasks in the formation of norms and values of early childhood development. It explores the issues related to developing private entrepreneurship in the field of child care and education, and the regulation of legislative changes aimed at increasing competition between private and municipal kindergartens. It assesses parents’ basic demands for modern accessibility mechanisms when electronic services for admission to the pre-school institution are introduced; it analyses various aspects of increasing pre-school education accessibility with regard to the selection of a kindergarten, the regime of day-care programs, the number of children per group, and the work of the day-care assistants. Special attention is paid to comparing public (municipal) pre-school educational institutions and private kindergartens in order to evaluate the different opportunities which enable parents to have a free choice of pre-schools institutions. The article describes the vectors in the development of pre-school education accessibility, and in levelling the starting opportunities for successful educational strategies.


Lyubov Antosik — Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Associate Professor at the Department of Economic Theory, World and Regional Economy, Volgograd State University. E-mail: AntosikLV@volsu.ru

Ekaterina Shevchenko — Senior Teacher at the Department of Economic Theory, World and Regional Economy, Volgograd State UniversityE-mail: ShevchenkoES@volsu.ru

The introduction of an effective contract into the Russian public sector was due to the need to ensure compliance regarding wages and the quality of services provided. A review of existing studies on contract relationships within academia and practices to stimulate publication activity in Russian and foreign universities has shown that the key factors influencing scientific activity by university teachers are internal motivation, favorable academic environment, and relationships in a team. This paper analyzes two systems of stimulation of publication activity in higher education: a rating of scientific activity and a system of the effective contract. To analyze the introduction of an effective contract in educational organizations, researchers primarily use methods of content analysis of normative legal acts and sociological surveys. Based on data about the publication activity of teachers of the Institute over 6 years (3 years before the introduction of an effective contract and 3 years after), the authors conducted an econometric study of the impact of an effective contract on the quantity and quality of publications. To test the hypothesis the authors used a fixed effect model, a random effects model, and pooled ordinary least squares and least squares dummy variable. In this article the authors suggest a methodology for assessing the impact of an effective contract on the publication activity of university teachers. The authors conclude that salary and incentive payments, as well as participation in conferences and teacher training, have had a significant positive impact on the number of publications. The quality of publications was significantly influenced by incentive payments and professional development. The introduction of an effective contract had an impact only on the total number of publications.

History of Education


Vitaliy Ananiev — Senior Lecturer, Institute of Philosophy, Saint-Petersburg State University. E-mail: v.ananev@spbu.ru.

Mikhail Bukharin — D.Litt., Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Chief Researcher, Institute of World History of the Russian Academy of Sciences. E-mail: michabucha@gmail.com

A discussion on the reform of higher education in humanities in Russia in the spring of 1917 is analyzed. At the center of this discussion, questions regarding the organization of the teaching of general history of arts and archeology at Petrograd University and in technical colleges are considered. This discussion reflected the long process of delimitation of a number of disciplines (classical philology, history of art, archeology) and the formation of their own research and teaching field. Two earlier unknown documents are published: a letter from S. A. Zhebelev to V. N. Rakint, the Scientific Secretary of the Institute of History of Arts, and a note by V. Ya. Kurbatov “About teaching of the history of art in the higher technical educational institutions” from the funds of the Central State Archive of Literature and Arts. These documents expand our ideas of the history of the reforming of the higher school in 1917–1922, and the final delimitation of history of arts and archeology not only as academic disciplines, but also as educational directions. Zhebelev’s letter and Kurbatov’s note characterize the atmosphere in the Russian pedagogical environment of 1917–1922, when large-scale and effective reforms of the higher school were possible. It is obvious that some of the ideas stated during the given discussion and realized during the formation of the faculty of social sciences of Petrograd University are relevant today as well: curricula, training of teaching staff, emphasis on practical use of theoretical knowledge, and a polydisciplinary approach in the educational process.

Reflections on…


Viktor Bolotov — Doctor of Sciences in Pedagogy, Tenured Professor, President of the Euroasian Association for Educational Assessment. E-mail: vikbolotov@yandex.ru

The article describes the key stages in the development of the education quality assessment system in Russia: certification of educational institutions, participation in international comparative studies, implementation of the Unified State Examination (USE) and Basic State Examination (BSE), and the emergence of a community of education assessment experts. The most urgent goals in the development of the Russian education assessment system are seen to be switching to competency-oriented USE and BSE (with the subject-specific component preserved), developing national monitoring studies to compare education quality among regions and municipalities, tracing the socialization patterns of school graduates, elaborating various models of inclass and in-school assessment, and providing tools to measure the individual progress of students. Meanwhile, the lack of competent interpretation of measurement results appears to be the main challenge in education quality assessment.