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2018. no2

Theoretical and Applied Research

8–25

Yana Mikhaylova - Junior Research Fellow, Centre for Contemporary Childhood Research, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: ikozmina@hse.ru

Elizaveta Sivak - Research Fellow, Centre for Contemporary Childhood Research, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: esivak@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

Scientists note that the dominant ideology for raising children today is intensive parenting. One of the key prerequisites underlying this ideology is that inchild-rearing a parent should be guided by expert knowledge. In this context, educational programs for parents and parental self-education are being actively developed. However, the informational inquiries of parents have not been sufficiently studied. What sources do parents use? At which points is information about the upbringing of children most needed? In this paper we look at what sources of information related to children (education, health, etc.) parents use and what questions they are concerned about. The paper is based onan online survey of mothers and fathers of children aged from one to 12 years. We show that the intensity of use of different sources of information is related to the age of a child: one can single out peaks of "confusion" associated with certain stages in a child's life: the first six months of her or his life and the 6–7 year old age (preparation for school), with a relatively calm period (when a child is 4–5 years old) between them.

The Infrastructure of Reading: Reader’s Experience Perspective
26–45

Ekaterina Asonova — PhD in Pedagogy, Head of the Laboratory of Sociocultural Educational Practices, Institute of System Projects MCU. E-mail: AsonovaEA@mgpu.ru

Elena Romanicheva — PhD in Pedagogy, Chief Researcher of the Laboratory of Sociocultural Educational Practices, Institute of System Projects MCU. E-mail: RomanichevaES@mgpu.ru

Olesya Senenko — PhD in Philology, Leading Researcher of the Laboratory of Sociocultural Educational Practices, Institute of System Projects MCU. E-mail: SenenkoOV@mgpu.ru

Ksenia Kikteva — PhD in Pedagogy, Senior Researcher of the Laboratory of Sociocultural Educational Practices, Institute of System Projects MCU. E-mail: KiktevaKS@mgpu.ru

Address: Bld. 4, 2nd Selskohozyaistvenny proezd, Moscow, 129226

Professional teacher community describes the current situation in literary educationas a deep crisis and finds it necessary to update the objectives of teaching literature at school and review the education system as a whole by changing its participants fundamentally: education cannot and should not beregarded as a closed school system anymore. Expansion of citizens’ educational and cultural opportunities dictates the need for analyzing the outcomes of education through the prism of its needs. The infrastructure of reading is described as a system of components which provide for meeting needs and demands of the infrastructure subjects, i. e. citizens who read. The sociocultural approach as a way of determining the key urban environment prerequisites to promote the development of reading motivation and reading competencies in children and adolescents appears to be the most adequate and productive method of investigating and designing the infrastructure of reading.

Practice

46–70

Edgar Demetrio Tovar-García — Ph.D. in Economics, Research Professor, Escuela de Ciencias Económicasy Empresariales, Universidad Panamericana. Address: Prolongación CalzadaCircunvalación Poniente 49, Zapopan, Jalisco, 45010, México. E-mail: dtovar@up.edu.mx

This paper empirically studies the association between sport activities and educational achievements of school students from 1st to 11th grade. The used sample included observations over the period 2010-2015 taken from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (waves 19-24), which is a unique nationally representative survey. The method consisted of logit regressions with panel data, which allows control for time-invariant explanatory variables. The empirical analysis was divided into sport activities at school (in class) and out-of-school (before or after classes). Furthermore, the regression analysis examined the effect of three large groups of sport activities: 1) Combat sports, such as karate, judo, self-defense, wrestling, and boxing, 2) Ball sports, such as tennis, soccer, basketball, and volleyball, 3) Athletic sports, such as track and field, skiing, and skating. General speaking, the findings indicated that sport activities at school do not have significant associations with educational achievements. On the other hand, sport activities out-of-school showed some positive relationships. Specifically, participation in athletic and combat sports increases the probabilities of boys and girls, respectively, of being classified as high-performing students. Moreover, male students practicing ball sports out-of-school are less likely to be classified as low-performing students. The time that students spent on these sports does not influence these probabilities. However, male students spending more than 10 hours per week on sports (high-performance sportsmen) are more likely than other students of being linked to the group of low-performing students.

71–90

Oleg Fedorov — Candidate of Sciences in History, Deputy Director, Leading Researcher, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: ofedorov@hse.ru

Olga Zhuravleva — Doctor of Sciences in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, Head of the Departmentof Social Education, Saint Petersburg Academy of Postgraduate Teacher Education. Address: 11–13 Lomonosova Str., 191002 Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation. E-mail: kafedraso2010@yandex.ru

Tatyana Polyakova — Doctor of Sciences in Pedagogy, Professor, Department of Social Education, Saint Petersburg Academy of Postgraduate Teacher Education. Address: 11–13 Lomonosova Str., 191002 Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation. E-mail: kafedraso2010@yandex.ru

A survey of 436 young teachers from 18 federal subjects of the Russian Federation who started their teaching careers between 2015 and 2017, 72 school principals, 96 deputy headmasters for curriculum and discipline, and 64 experts from regional and municipal methodological agencies has revealed the most essential downsides of teacher education. Young teachers reported first of all to be lacking soft skills and practical knowledge in psychology as well as being unprepared for classroom realities; they also complained about the lack of practice and variety in teacher training programs. School principals believe that new teacherslack subject-specific knowledge, have gaps in their knowledge of practical teaching methods, and find themselves unprepared for teacher’s routine obligations (filling out gradebooks, making lesson plans, etc.). Methodologists point out the lack of knowledge of children’s age characteristics, poorly-developed didactic competencies, and an inability to work with components of learning and teaching support kits among young teachers. The data obtained is used to develop a number of promising avenues for the design of supplementary professional education programs as tools to increase teachers’ levels of expertise, i. e. the strategemes of humanities education, lifelong learning, and personification.

91–116

Raees Calafato — MA Applied Linguistics, Researcher, Institute of Education, University College London (Great Britain). Address: University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E6BT. E-mail: raees.calafato@gmail.com

The use of authentic texts, including literature, as an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) resource has gained wider currency in classrooms, notably in Europe and Asia, where this integration is being encouraged as linguists acknowledge the vital importance of lexical knowledge to foreign language acquisition. The adoption of communicative language teaching (CLT) methods, pointing to a shift away from teacher-centric models of language pedagogy, has also led to a greater emphasis being placed on the use of authentic texts, including literature, which has in turn given rise to debates regarding appropriate teaching techniques, methodology and text selection. In terms of foreign language education in Russia, literature has a storied history of use, although relatively few empirical studies exist on contemporary teacher practices and how these have evolved in the post-Soviet era. Indeed, as teaching practices evolve to incorporate authentic texts in EFL education in Russia, it is important for all stakeholders to understand what texts are actually being used in classrooms and in what way. To address this gap, data, as part of an exploratory study, was collected from 152 Russian EFL teachers via a semi-structured questionnaire. The results show that while Soviet teaching practices continue to influence, to some extent, teaching approaches and text selection with regard to literature in language education (LLE), there are notable shifts in teachers’ attitudes towards learner interest and ability that reveal evolving teacher priorities and motivation.

Russian education at the threshold of a new stage of evolution

117–138

Fedor Dudyrev — Candidate of Sciences in History, Director, Centre for the Studies of the Secondary Vocational Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: fdudyrev@hse.ru

Olga Romanova — Analyst, Centre for the Studies of the Secondary Vocational Education, Instituteof Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: oromanova@hse.ru

Alexey Shabalin — Expert, Centre for the Studies of the Secondary Vocational Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: ashabalin@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

The paper analyzes the results of the systems project Training Workers to Comply with the Requirements of High-Tech Industries Using Dual Education, organized by the Agency for Strategic Initiatives in 13 subjects of the Russian Federation. Dual education implies “dual” institutional consolidation of knowledge obtained in vocational education programs: theory is normally learned at a vocational school, while an apprenticeship is taken with in a company, in a real-life working environment. It is shown that the best practices of dual education can be found in the growing sectors. The most successful implementation of the dual model is observed in the regions of Russia that have seen their investment climates improved, their barriers for businesses reduced, and the quality of their public administration increased. Effectiveness of the dual model is largely contingent on the economic motivations of employers investing in a staff training system within the framework of large-scale investment and technology upgrade projects. As employers’ associations are weak, the decisive role in the coordination of efforts between businesses and professional educational institutions is played by regional authorities and governor’s councils, which have virtually grown into substitutes for German chambers of commerceand industry. Nationwide vocational education projects have promoted further development of the dual model due to organizational and financial support from study and career clusters. The best dual education practices should only be spread to regional industries that have the necessary economic and infrastructure premises for companies to invest in such a staff training system.

139–172

Anna Dukhon — Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Member of the Board of Directors of Moscow Department of the Russian Public Organization “Russian Association of Statisticians”. Address: 3 Golyanovskaya Str., 105094 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: dukhon@post.ru

Kirill Zinkovsky — Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Associate Professor, Deputy Director, Institute for Educational Studies, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economic. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: kzinkovsky@hse.ru

Olga Obraztsova — Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Associate Professor, Department of General Economics, Lomonosov Moscow State University. Address: building 61, 1 Leninskie Gory, 119234 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: olga_obraztsova@rambler.ru

Alexander Chepurenko — Doctor of Sciences in Economics, Professor, Head, School of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economic. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: achepurenko@hse.ru

The article presents the results from studying the engagement of Russians insupplementary professional and business education programs and investigates the influence of such engagement on small business development in the socioeconomic contexts of different regions of Russia. The study goes from comparing the number of students enrolled in supplementary professional and business education programs of various duration across regions, through analysing the correlations between the demand for specific types of programs and the development of different business subsectors under region-specific socioeconomic conditions, to analysing entrepreneurship education as a growth driver for particular types of small businesses in specific contexts.

The study tests hypotheses about the engagement of Russians in business education being contingent on the regional context and about the influence of different forms of business education on the development of various types of business undertakings. Empirical data on three types of region-specific socioeconomic contexts reveals a significant correlation between engagement in supplementary professional and business education programs and the development level of small businesses, microbusinesses, and entrepreneurship (in its routine and innovative versions). The three clusters of regional units homogeneous in their socioeconomic contexts were determined using a multidimensional typology.

The findings allow for evaluating the role of the national education system in promoting business activities among the population based on reliable and relevant statistical information consistent with the international standards as well as measuring the effectiveness of business education programs and promotion strategies in various regional contexts. The article puts forward recommendations on choosing the types of entrepreneurship education to deliver at different levels of the education system in Russia.

173–197

Tatiana Semenova — Junior Research Fellow, Centre of Sociology of Higher Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: tsemenova@hse.ru

Ksenia Vilkova — Intern Researcher, Centre of Sociology of Higher Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: kavilkova@edu.hse.ru

Irina Shcheglova — Analyst, Centre of Sociology of Higher Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: ishcheglova@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

As massive open online courses (MOOC) rapidly invaded the education services market at the beginning of the 21st century, a new trend emerged in global education. In the era of globalization and digitization, MOOC acts as an efficient tool to promote universities in the international educational arena, popularizenational cultures, and raise additional funds. This is why a lot of countries, including Russia, have entered the race for online courses. Despite all the focus on MOOC in global education, the proportion of studies analyzing the MOOC market and the prospects for MOOCs in the Russian context is rather small. This article mainly seeks to describe the MOOC market and behavioral patterns of MOOC providers in the international and national online education markets, and to classify MOOC players based on open source data collected from online platforms. As a conclusion, platform data analysis findings are used to identify vacant niches in the MOOC market, and possible avenues of Russian providers’ development in the international segment are assessed. Several data sources were used to solve the study objectives: articles, reports, official MOOC-related documents, information from online platform websites, a body of quantitative data collected from two leading online platforms, and a base of quantitative data from the Class Central aggregator, which contains informationon MOOCs offered by several major online platforms.

198–227

Мarina Pinskaya — Candidate of Sciences of Pedagogics, Leading Research Fellow, Center of Social and Economic School Development, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: mpinskaya@hse.ru

Tatiana Khavenson — Research Fellow, International Laboratory for Education Policy Analysis, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: tkhavenson@hse.ru

Sergey Kosaretsky — Candidate of Sciences in Psychology, Director, Center of Social and Economic School Development, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: skosaretski@hse.ru

Roman Zvyagintsev — Intern Researcher, Center of Social and Economic School Development, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: rzvyagincev@hse.ru

Aleksandra Mikhaylova — Intern Researcher, Center of Social and Economic School Development, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: s.mikhaylova211@gmail.com

Tatiana Chirkina — Intern Researcher, International Laboratory for Education Policy Analysis, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: tchirkina@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

A field study was performed by experts from the Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics, as part of the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations conducted by HSE in cooperation with the Levada Center. Interviews and focus groups were organized with school principals, teachers, students and their parents in three schools teaching the most challenging type of students from low socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds, who nevertheless achieve high learning outcomes. This is a follow-up of the 2015 study of environment characteristics, management and education strategies of schools operating in unfavorable social contexts. Such schools are defined as resilient, meaning that they successfully resist the disadvantaged context beyond their control. The schools surveyed differ in the number of students, education programs, and the level of regional deprivation, yet all of them pursue similar strategies that are well-targeted and recognized by all educational process participants. Such strategies include: introducing limited selection and levelling off the student body, imposing high expectations and transparent requirements to learning outcomes, providing individual support and encouragement to students, and developing the skills boosting graduates’ chances of successful socialization. Consistent implementation of these strategies will create conditions to promote academic resilience among students. Studying the experience of such schools appears to be crucial for solving the problem of inequality in education.

228–253

Yulia Koreshnikova — Analyst, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: koreshnikova@hse.ru


Andrey Zakharov — Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogics, Associate Professor, Laboratory Head, International Laboratory for Educational Policy Research, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: abzakharov@hse.ru

Fedor Dudyrev — Candidate of Sciences in History, Director, Centre for the Studies of the Secondary Vocational Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: fdudyrev@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

More and more middle school graduates opt for vocational schools every year. They are normally less academically successful students from lower economicand cultural backgrounds. Still, the vocational education system must provide the chance to have a quality general education to anyone who follows this trajectory after the ninth grade. The article uses findings of the Trajectories in Education and Careers longitudinal study to compare the important conditions of obtaining a general mathematical education, i. e. the professional and demographic characteristics of vocational and high school teachers and their teaching practices. The comparison reveals an inequality in students’ access to educational resources depending on the chosen trajectory.The differences revealed are related to the institutional characteristics of the two trajectories and make it possible to say that the latter embrace different types of general education.

Education Statistics and Sociology

254–282

Galina Cherednichenko — Doctor of Sciences in Sociology, Leading Researcher, Institute of Sociology of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Address: 24/35 Krzhizhanovskogo Str., 117218 Moscow. E-mail: galcher2211@gmail.com

The indicators of development of distance higher education in Russia since 2000 until now are described as compared to full-time learning programs using the estimates based on the primary data obtained from the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia as well as official statistics. The study involves analysis of the chronological changes in the indicators of enrollment rates, the applicants per place ratio, the distribution of applicants by age characteristics and the level of educational attainment, the number of students and their gender composition, graduation as such and broken by the type of degree (Bachelor’s, Specialist’s, Master’s), the form of ownership of an educational institution (public/private), and the ratio of state- and self-funded places (which takes into account youth demographics, where possible). Data on the proportion of distance learning students in the 2017 enrollment rates is used to identify a series of trends that characterize the development of this form of education in particular federal okrugs and subjects of the Russian Federation.

Book Reviews and Survey Articles

283–294

Alexey Lyubzhin - Doctor of Sciences in Philology, Research Fellow at the Department of Rare Books and Manuscripts of the Science Library, Moscow State University. Address: 9 Mokhovaya Str., 103073 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: vulture@mail.ru

It appears relevant to provide a critical review of the presented book as a manifesto of conservative views, so popular today, and as an indicator of the disorientation of modern society, which has a poor knowledge of the Russian school and thus sees its traditions in things that pronouncedly contradict them. The review provides an analysis of Vsevolod Troitsky’s perspective on teaching literature in school, the list of authors he finds advisable to include in school syllabi, his conception of historicism in teaching literature, and his ideas of the old Russian and Soviet schools.

295–302

Marina Vetchinova - Doctor of Sciences in Pedagogy, Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Professional Communication, Kursk State University. Address: 33 Radishcheva Str., 305000 Kursk, Russian Federation. E-mail: marx2003@list.ru

As globalization accelerates around the globe, universities are becoming acritical national resource. The book captures a broad range of problems faced by universities in the era of globalization and crisis intervention processes, including the development of new business strategies, the upgrade of education programs to enable graduates to integrate into the global labor market, and the provision of universities’ competitiveness in the education market. Alternative versions of university education in the information age are proposed along with such innovative institutional models as open university, network university, multiversity and educational hub. All the three sections of the monograph — the theory, the background and the project — describe in parallel the experience, regularities and prospects of the development of higher education systems in Russia and Germany. The book goes into the sociocultural foundations of the higher education systems and the evolution of the sociocultural concept of “education” in Russia and Germany. Examples of Russian and German universities are used to demonstrate how international cooperation in higher education could be organized and maintained.