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2017. no4

Russian education at the threshold of a new stage of evolution

8–9

10–35

Anastasiya Kapuza - intern researcher, International Laboratory for Education Policy Analysis, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: akapuza@hse.ru

Yuliya Kersha - intern researcher, International Laboratory for Education Policy Analysis, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: ykersha@hse.ru

Andrey Zakharov - head of the International Laboratory for Education Policy Analysis, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: abzakharov@hse.ru

Tatiana Khavenson - research fellow, International Laboratory for Education Policy Analysis, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: tkhavenson@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federaton

Dynamics of academic performance of Russian school students depending on cultural capital and the size of community is analyzed using PISA and TIMSS data. In order to reveal tendencies in TIMSS and PISA scores dynamics ten educational experts were interviewed. The last 15 years have witnessed a slight improvement in performance of Russian school students and a drop in social and territorial inequality. These changes do not affect all subject areas and result from educational attainment improvements in small populated localities and social groups of low cultural capital. Meanwhile, no growth has been observed in the scores of students with higher levels of cultural capital. The interviews shed light on possible changes in the education system associated with the dynamics of school students’ educational attainment.


36–59

Ilya Korshunov - Candidate of Sciences in Chemistry, Associate Professor, Leading Expert, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E‑mail: ikorshunov@hse.ru

Olga Gaponova - Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Associate Professor, Department of General and Strategic Management, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 136 Rodionova Str., 603155 Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation. E-mail: osgaponova@hse.ru

Statistical data is used to analyze formal and supplementary adult education attainment rates in the European Union, OECD countries and Russia depending on the basic economic development characteristics and the government effectiveness index that the World  Bank has used to assess the quality of governance for the last two decades. In countries with low GDP, formal and supplementary adult education attainment rates are linearly dependent on the size of investment in fixed capital and show weak correlation with the index of government effectiveness. In countries with high levels of GDP and active investment processes, the key role in the growth of formal and supplementary education attainment rates is played by governmental actions that prompt the population and employers to engage in learning and supplementary education programs. Region-specific Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat) data shows similar correlations between engagement of the employed population in lifelong learning and economic development  indicators. The study includes analysis of official development strategies and the existing lifelong learning policies pursued by the countries as well as national cases that include the content of education programs, target groups and measures to maintain the adult population’s access to lifelong learning. Incentives to increase formal and supplementary adult education attainment rates are identified, and the relationship between their implementation and economic development of countries is determined.

60–82

Irina Abankina - Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Tenured Professor, Director of the Institute for Educational Studies, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: abankinai@hse.ru

Natalya Rodina - Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Leading Research Fellow at the Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: nrodina@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

This article explores opportunities in using performance-based contracting as a tool for internal recruitment and a means of solving problems that preschool educational institutions face in their development. Kindergarten staff underwent little change for decades. Sociological surveys revealed the first shifts in the motivation of preschool teachers after some large-scale salary increase measures in education were undertaken. According to the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations, only 60% of preschool teachers wanted to continue working for their institutions in 2007–2011, while 40% felt like changing their jobs. In 2016, 78% of kindergarten teachers did not want to quit: they had new incentives and an interest in professional growth, their work had become more creative, and interest in work had come to the fore. The findings give reason for considering further support of the salary reform feasible in order to change the nature of preschool teaching as a strategic vector of development in this education sector. As the course of the preschool teacher salary reform has been analyzed and the major trends in changes in institutions that applied performance-based contracting in 2012–2016 have been identified, the conclusion is made that further implementation of performance-based contracts is possible provided that performance criteria recommended “from above” are specified wisely at the level of individual educational institutions and adjusted to kindergarten-specific development strategies. Personnel policies are becoming a resource in the transformation of preschool education content and its orientation towards the development of 21st-century skills.

Theoretical and Applied Research

83–103

Marina Baskakova - Doctor of Sciences in Economics, Leading Researcher, Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. E-mail: baskakovame@mail.ru

Irina Soboleva - Doctor of Sciences in Economics, Head of the Center for Employment Policy and Social and Labor Relationships, Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. E-mail: irasobol@gmail.com

Address: 32 Nakhimovsky Ave, 117218 Moscow, Russian Federation.

The educational potential of prospective and current employers and gender-based differences in its accumulation and use are analyzed from the perspective of the generation of decent jobs based on the data obtained by the Russian Federal State Statistics Service  Rosstat) as part of the “Population Survey on Employment Problems” and “Integrated Household Living Conditions Survey” projects. The study reveals that Russian entrepreneurship is characterized by an expressed gender asymmetry. Professionally employed women have higher educational potential than men, yet less opportunity to play out this competitive advantage as entrepreneurs. The educational potential of Russian employers has been found to be pretty high, but their stratum is too thin yet to be a consistent  generator of decent jobs and too difficult to expand.


104–132

Svetlana Avdeeva - PhD in Technical Sciences, Deputy Executive Director, National Training Foundation; Deputy Head, Center of Education Quality Monitoring, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: Bld. 1, 1905 Goda Str., 123022 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: avdeeva@ntf.ru

Maksim Rudnev - Candidate of Sciences in Sociology, Leading Researcher, Laboratory for Comparative Studies in Mass Consciousness, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: mrudnev@hse.ru

Georgy Vasin - Psychometrician, Department of ICT Development in Education, National Training Foundation. Address: Bld. 1, 71905 Goda Str., 123022 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: vasin@ntf.ru

Ksenia Tarasova - Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogy, Leading Specialist, National Training Foundation. Address: Bld. 1, 1905 Goda Str., 123022 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: kvtarasova@mail.ru

Daria Panova - Assessment Content Developer, National Training Foundation. Address: Bld. 1, 1905 Goda Str., 123022 Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: panova@ntf.ru

The study describes the Information and Communication Literacy Test (the ICL Test), an instrument to measure information and communication technology competence in middle school students (grades 7–9). An overview of the existing instruments proves that there are no other ICT competence assessment instruments applicable to Russian students today. The assessment was constructed using an innovative systematic approach (evidence-centered assessment design, ECD). The ICL Test results were calculated using Bayesian networks, which are more effective than the Item Response Theory in this case. The ICL Test revealed a high level of construct, content, convergent, divergent and face validity as well as good reliability. The instrument conforms to both Russian and international educational standards according to Webb’s criteria for alignment. The ICL Test results were used to assess ICT competence and identify the factors that influence its development in regions of Russia, Armenia and Belarus. The conclusion is that the ICL Test can be applied to both Russian and foreign education systems.

133–149

Svetlana Volkova - Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogy, Associate Professor at the Department of Philosophy and Cultural Studies, Petrozavodsk State University; Postdoctoral Student at the Department of Philosophic Anthropology, St. Petersburg State University. Address: 3–7 Perttunena Str., 185005 Petrozavodsk, Russian Federation. E-mail: svetavolkov@ya.ru

The article reflects one of the main tendencies in philosophy of education, the so-called “corporeal turn”. An attempt is made to analyze the key ideas of Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology and the latest achievements in cognitive research in their relationship with the phenomenon of education. The ideas of cognition as a process of producing mental representations, body and mind dichotomies and the value priority of the latter over the former are criticized. Justification is provided for the idea that the mind executes its cognitive processes using epistemic resources that emerge and are congruent with activities, needs and goals of the body. Thus, the mind is not restricted to one “place”, rather being distributed across a network of interactions between mental, sensory and motor processes. The appeal to the lived body experience is extremely important as it reveals the meanings that students focus on in their learning activity, thus making intersubjective relationships more transparent. The explication of the idea of unity of body and mind will allow educators to adequately determine the role and place of corporeity in both perception and thought processes and eventually discover new cognitive and phenomenological strategies for substantiating the significance of such disciplines as drama and dance, music and physical education in the educational process.


Practice

150–170

Yulia Tyumeneva - Candidate of Sciences in Psychology, Associate Professor, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: jutu@yandex.ru

Anastasiya Kapuza - Postgraduate Student, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: a. v.kapuza@gmail.com

Kseniya Vergeles - Master Student, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: vergeles.k.soc@gmail.com

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

Previous research has proved the concept mapping is an effective tool to evaluate knowledge structure, but usually the concept mapping served to foster and trace individual progress in specific field of knowledge. No attention was paid to identifying or verifying the formal indicators of concept maps or their sensitiveness to the level of competence in a specific field of knowledge. However it will make possible to use concept mapping as a standardized tool. In the current study some possible indicators are suggested based on concept maps of experts (n = 4) and novices (n = 9) in the field of data analysis. Experts and novices constructed their concept maps individually after receiving standardized instructions and brief training. Formal indicators were based on interpreting concept map as a graph. Specifically, indicators such as generality of concepts used, structure coherence, proportions of singular, complex concepts, etc. were expected to be discriminative for different levels of competence. We found that nearly all indicators actually discriminate between experts and novices. In addition, a few qualitative parameters of concept maps were identified (availability of key concepts, existence of erroneous relationships, procedural/conceptual nature of knowledge) which also differed across groups. As a result, concept mapping look potentially helpful for standardized evaluation of competence levels if we use the formal indicators. Although further research on extended and heterogeneous samples is required to test stability and generalizability of this formal approach to the concept  mapping.

171–198

Vera Titkova - Junior Research Fellow, Research Laboratory of Sociology in Education and Science, National Research University Higher School of Economics (Saint Petersburg). E-mail: vtitkova@hse.com

Valeria Ivaniushina - Candidate of Sciences in Biology; Leading Research Fellow of the Laboratory of Sociology in Education and Science, National Research University Higher School of Economics (Saint Petersburg). E-mail: ivaniushina@hse.ru

Daniil Alexandrov - Candidate of Sciences in Biology; Head of the Laboratory of Sociology in Education and Science, National Research University Higher School of Economics (Saint Petersburg). E-mail: dalexandrov@hse.ru

Address: 55 Sedova Str., 190008, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.

Sixty-two semi-structured interviews with students of grades 9–11 in 15 schools and a survey of 2,376 ninth-graders from 55 schools were used to identify Russian teenagers’ perceptions of popularity and assess gender differences in the factors of popularity. It transpires that 40–50% of school students reject the very notion of “popular” as inequality-inducing. Such attitudes are probably in coherence with collectivistic values that are prevalent in Russian society as opposed to individualistic ones. Students perceived as popular by their peers are characterized as exhibiting prosocial behavior. “The life and soul of the party” was the most frequent characteristic of popular teenagers used in students’ descriptions; “attractive”, “very smart” and “acknowledges no authority” were mentioned slightly less often. Girls are more likely to be classified as popular for their good-looking appearance and sense of style, while boys are revered for sports achievements, arguments with teachers, independence and ability to stand up for themselves. Intellect  and sociability are regarded as equally strong factors of popularity for both boys and girls. High status in a class is associated with social approval and support, academic achievements and prosocial behavior. Russian school students differ from their Western peers in their notion and perceptions of popularity.


Teachers’ Salary: Expectations and Results Achieved
199–216

Tatyana Klyachko - Doctor of Sciences in Economics, Professor, Dean of the Center for Continuing Education Economics, Institute of Applied Economic Research, The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. E-mail: tlk@ranepa.ru

Galina Tokareva - Research Fellow at the Center for Continuing Education Economics, Institute of Applied Economic Research, The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. E-mail: tokareva-gs@ranepa.ru

Address: 82 Vernadskogo pr. 119571, Moscow, Russian Federation.

The article deals with the main trends occurring in the school education system, which are caused by an increase in the average salaries of teachers. The analysis is conducted both on the basis of official statistics from the Federal State Statistics Service and on results  from monitoring the effectiveness of schools conducted by the Center for Continuous Education Economics of The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. It is shown that parents don’t associate improvement in the quality of  teaching with the growth of teachers' salaries. At the same time, they believe that the school performs its functions quite successfully. Teachers themselves are increasingly unhappy with the size of their wages, most of them didn’t feel its increase. At the same time, only 6.6% of teachers plan to leave the profession and work in another sphere.

Education Statistics and Sociology

217–241

Daniil Alexandrov - Candidate of Sciences in Biology, Head of the Laboratory of Sociology in Education and Science, National Research University Higher School of Economics (Saint Petersburg). Address: 16 Soyuza Pechatnikov Str., 190121 St. Petersburg, Russian  Federation. E-mail: dalexandrov@hse.ru

Ksenia Tenisheva - Research Assistant, Sociology of Education and Science Laboratory, National Research University Higher School of Economics (St. Petersburg). Address: 55 Sedova Str., 190008, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. E-mail: tenishewa. soc@gmail.com

Svetlana Savelyeva - Deputy Head, Sociology of Education and Science Laboratory, National Research University Higher School of Economics (St. Petersburg). Address: 55 Sedova Str., 190008, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. E-mail: ssavelieva@hse.ru

The paper explores the relation between involvement of school students in extracurricular activities and their self-concept in mathematics and humanities as well as physical self-concept. The study is based on a survey involving over 5,000 ninth-graders from  schools in St. Petersburg, Leningrad Oblast and Pskov. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis methods reveal that involvement in extracurricular activities of any kind is positively related with academic performance, most strongly with educational achievements in foreign languages. We found no gender differences in the relationship between extracurricular activities and academic performance or self-concept; even sports have the same effects on the self-concept of boys and girls. Both structured and unstructured extracurricular activities are positively related with academic achievement, though the relation for unstructured activities is weaker. Engagement in two or three types structured extracurricular activities and in unstructured activities at the same time appears to be the most useful option in terms of academic achievement. Extracurricular activities also boost students’ self-concept in relevant academic domains. The strength of relationship between extracurricular activities and academic performance depends on the size of the city, being more conspicuous in small cities and towns than in megalopolises.

242–264

Mark Agranovich - Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Head of the Center for Monitoring and Statistics of Education, Federal Institute for Education Development, Federal State Autonomous Institution. Address: 9 Chernyakhovskogo Str., 129319 Moscow, Russian  Federation. E-mail: magran@firo.ru

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, or “action for people, planet and prosperity”, was adopted by the United Nations in 2015. An important role belongs to the education, which embraces ten targets. Currently, the international community coordinating by UNESCO is actively developing a set of indicators to reflect the level of the education goal and targets achievement. The article investigates the possibility of using a common set of indicators for countries with vastly differing socioeconomic conditions and levels of  education system development and applying universal indicators to elaborate national education policies in different countries. Context analysis of the indicators of sustainable development goal and targets achievement, and differences in the interpretation of the indicators depending on specific country characteristics are analyzed.

Book Reviews and Survey Articles

265–279