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2017. no2

Theoretical and Applied Research

8–9

10–35

Oleg Poldin - PhD, Senior Researcher at the Center for Institutional Studies, National Research University Higher School of Economics.

Nataliya Matveeva - Doctoral Student, National Research University Higher School of Economics; Junior Researcher, Center for Institutional Studies,  National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 25/12 Bolshaya Pecherskaya St., 603155, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation. E-mail: nmatveeva@hse.ru

Ivan Sterligov - Director of the Scientometrics Center, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: isterligov@hse.ru

Maria Yudkevich - PhD, Vice-Rector, National Research University Higher School of Economics; Director of the Center for Institutional Studies, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: yudkevich@hse.ru

We estimate the effects of the Russian University excellence program (Project 5–100) initiated by the Government in 2013 (Project 5–100) on the research performance of those leading Russian universities that received, on the competitive basis, substantial financial support within this program. While the publication output of Russian universities in general has increased in recent years, we estimate whether there is significant added value from the Program, that is, whether the extra increase in productivity takes place in selected universities. We use econometric analysis of longitudinal data applying the linear growth model with mixed effects, with the number of publications (total number, per capita, and publications in high-quality journals) as a dependent variable. We demonstrate that there is a positive significant effect of the Program that appears from the very first years of its implementation — that is, universities that received financial support demonstrate a substantial steady increase in publications measured in both total numbers and per capita (including publications in the top‑25% of journals) when compared to universities from the control group.

36–73

Mikhail Sokolov - Candidate of Sciences in Sociology, Professor, European University at Saint Petersburg. Address: 3a Gagarinskaya St., 191187, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation. E-mail: msokolov@eu.spb.ru

Many attempts to build a typology of post-Soviet universities are based on the idea that a university development is an outcome of implementation of a strategy chosen by the organization’s managers. It is assumed that the choice of strategy is responsible for achievements and failures of a given organization. The article offers and statistically evaluates an alternative, non-voluntarist model of university evolution inspired by Carnegie School theory of organizations and a Lamarckian approach to organizational development. The model rests upon three assumptions: (i) organizations are economically motivated; (ii) they have no consolidated will, rather representing a conglomerate of internal agents that make decisions independently; (iii) organizations differ not so much in the nature of their decisions as in the chances for their successful implementation. These chances are predetermined by the starting  points of university evolution: legal status (state/private, main/branch campus), belonging to a major “organizational family” (teacher training universities, colleges of arts and culture, etc. andgeographic location. Universities do not choose a development vector but find themselves in a narrow corridor imposed by the environment. The data of the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations surveyis used to demonstrate how an awareness of these elementary characters allows correctly predicting distribution of 75% of universities across four main types of university economies  existing at the time. The 2013–2014 Monitoring of Educational Institution Performance indicates further that the distribution of gains from the “research turn” in state science policycan also be largely predicted from the universities’ ascriptive characters.

74–94

Mikhail Lisyutkin - Research Fellow at the Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: mlisyutkin@hse.ru

A number of national higher education systems have been facing consistent resource decline lately, which cannot but affect the resource base of particular universities. Importantly, while some universities suffer from resource decline, others demonstrate an improvement in or expansion of their resources. This is where a question, both theoretically and practically essential, is raised about the reasons for the dynamics of a university’s resource base and its specific components. The article explores the Russian higher education system as well as particular Russian public universities in terms of resource base dynamics. Financial, intellectual and infrastructural resources are analyzed as components of the university’s resource base. As a result, a group of universities characterized by the declining resource base has been identified and described in detail. Interviews with the representatives of those universities as well as a review of relevant foreign studies have provided the basis for the identification of the possible reasons for the resource base decline of particular universities, which include organizational, contextual and technological factors.

Following the international symposium “Lev Vygotsky and Modern Childhood”

95–97

98–112

Dmitry Leontiev - Ph D., Dr. Sc., Professor, Head of International Laboratory of Positive Psychology of Personality and Motivation, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: dmleont@gmail.com

Anna Lebedeva - Ph D., Senior Research Fellow, International Laboratory of Positive Psychology of Personality and Motivation, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: anna.alex.lebedeva@gmail.com

Vasily Kostenko - Research Fellow, International Laboratory of Positive Psychology of Personality and Motivation, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: vasily.kostenko@gmail.com

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

The paper presents a theoretical reconstruction of Lev Vygotsky’s project on theory of personality development and highlights Vygotsky’s relevance and heuristic value for the personality psychology of our days, especially positive psychology. The authors focus on several aspects of Vygotsky’s heritage. 1. The general concept of personality within a non-classical framework. 2. The idea of self-mastery as the central explanatory concept and its relation to the modern concept of agency. 3. The role of self-reflective awareness in personality development. 4. Personality development pathways in challenging conditions. In Vygotsky’s works personality was implicitly constructed as the most integral higher mental function, while self-mastery or self-regulation was its central feature. Vygotsky’s principle of mediation states that the structure of human activity is mediated by physical or mental tools that break the S — R links and make it possible to master one’s own behavior and mental processes. By utilizing speech as a system of signs that enables the process of mastering the psychosocial reality, self-reflection makes a new basis for more complicated forms of higher mental processes that possesses more degr ees of freedom as compared with the lower ones. The law of compensation is discussed in the context of aggravated conditions of personality development, where personality answers to social boundaries, and thus achieves alternative trajectories of development. The sociocultural paradigm is thus consistent with modern thought on positive and personality psychology.

113–133

Elizaveta Sivak - Research Fellow at the Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: esivak@hse.ru

Konstantin Glazkov - Postgraduate Student, Department of Sociology, National Research University Higher School of Economics; Master of Urban Development; Lecturer at the Faculty of Social Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: glazkov.konst@gmail.com

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation

A number of studies have emphasized the importance of the educational potential of cities and revealed that home district characteristics influence children’s educational identity and access to educational resources. However, little attention is paid to the conditions and limits of children’s access to the city environment as well as the geographies of their outdoor activities, i. e. how far from home they travel when hanging out, how this distance can change as a child grows up, how often children attend specific places, and how the geographies of their mobility depend on their personal characteristics. A survey of Moscow school students of grades 5–10 is used to explore the basic characteristics of children’s independent mobility, including their everyday mobility, i. e. frequented places and the distance to them. It is shown that children normally travel within a radius of 1 km from home; the central part of  the city and the neighboring districts are visited less often than places within the home district. A comparison of everyday mobility of high- and low-performing students has proved that the proportion of children whose most frequented place is centers for after-school education is higher among high- erformers. Yet, no correlation was found between the size of the “habitat” and academic performance. Moreover, places for leisure, including leisure education, of families have been described based on a survey of over 700 mothers of school students. Families with high levels of cultural capital and  ood financial standing have demonstrated greater diversity of shared leisure activities and comprise a higher proportion of those attending family courses, public lectures, or other urban events. Such families exploit the educational leisure opportunities provided by the city more actively than others.

134–152

Katerina Polivanova - Doctor of Sciences in Psychology, Professor, Director of the Center for Modern Childhood Research, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: kpolivanova@hse.ru

Ivan Smirnov - Junior Researcher at the Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: ibsmirnov@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation

Children’s interests play a key role in their psychological development. However, research in this field is associated with serious methodological problems, as it has traditionally used questionnaire surveys that cannot adequately describe the diverse and dynamic world of interests of a developing person. The article suggests using the information on VKontakte communities followed by teenagers, in order to explore their interests. Apart from being comprehensive, Vkontakte data is, unlike questionnaire answers, also uncensored. The method’s potential demonstrated through the example of a Moscow school with 674 students following 20,203 various VKontakte communities. It reveals that teenagers’ interests vary depending on their gender, age, and academic performance. The degree of such variance is demonstrated on an extended set of data on the interests of 290,182 VKontakte users. It transpires that communities followed by teenagers predict with high accuracy not only their gender (97%) and age (98%) but also the performance of the schools they attend (83%). The findings point to the heterogeneity of age-related behavior patterns, in particular to their correlation with gender and academic achievements. Acknowledgement of the heterogeneity of interests and the diversity of age-related behavior patterns creates conditions for the further development of student-centered education, in the absence of which education is becoming more and more alienated from real life, ignoring the  interests of real people.

The Playground as a Phenomenon of Children’s Subculture
153–166

Inna Korepanova-Kotliar - Ph.D. in Psychology, Associate Professor at the Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Dubna State University, Dubna, Russian Federation. Address: 19 Universitetskaya St., 141980 Dubna, Moscow Oblast, Russian Federation. E-mail: iakorepanova@gmail.com

Maria Sokolova - Ph.D. in Psychology, Specialist at the Center for Psychological and Educational Expertise of Play and Toys, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow, Russian Federation. Address: 29 Sretenka St., 127051 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: maria.sokolova.v@gmail.com

The playground is analyzed from the perspective of cultural-historical psychology as a cultural artifact and a cultural tool for mental development. In accordance with its cultural function, a playground must provide opportunities for children and adolescents to satisfy their need for playing, moving, exploring the environment’s properties and their own physical abilities, as well as communicating with other children and adults. Allowance for these functions should be made both when selecting the equipment and when planning the overall playarea. Analyses of landscape architecture courses in Russia have demonstrated that neither syllabi nor study materials available in Russian provide the necessary training tools to enable landscape architects to design a playground that would satisfy the needs of children and adolescents. Therefore, cross-disciplinary cooperation is required. Developmental psychologists should be involved in playground planning as well as in the process of urban development training. Our results compare the behavior of children in conventional (16 playgrounds in Moscow) and next-generation playgrounds (6 playgrounds: in Neskuchny Garden in Moscow, Mikhailovsky Garden in Saint Petersburg, and Sochi Park). The next-generation playgrounds were found to answer children’s developmental needs better, unlocking the potential of the playground as a development tool. This  confirms the point on effective cooperation between landscape architects and psychologists.

Playgrounds as Migrant Integration Spaces
167–184

Anna Rocheva - MA in Sociology, Research Fellow at the Russian Presidential Academy for National Economy and Public Administration. E-mail: anna.rocheva@gmail.com

Evgeni Varshaver - MA in Sociology, MA in Government, Senior Research Fellow at the Russian Presidential Academy for National Economy and Public Administration. E-mail: varshavere@gmail.com

Nataliya Ivanova - BA in International Relations, Research Fellow at the Russian Presidential Academy for National Economy and Public Administration. E-mail: nataliya.ivanova.0709@gmail.com

Address: 119571, Moscow, Vernadskogo pr., 84

Playgrounds form one of the types of public spaces with the widest possible access and thus imply opportunities for interethnic contact. This contact, in turn, can contribute to migrant social integration — meaning a weakening of migrant-non-migrant stereotypes and a formation of new social ties between these two ‘groups’ — or, on the contrary, lead to conflicts and strengthen negative attitudes. Existing scholarship provides contradictory accounts  egarding the question about the role that public spaces in general and playgrounds in particular play regarding migrant integration. In the case of Russia, there are no accounts at all. The article presents the results of research conducted with qualitative methods (observation and interviews) on the  laygrounds in two Moscow residential neighborhoods in 2014–2015 and which focused on the grown-ups/parents rather than the children. The article argues that playgrounds contribute to the integration of internal migrants-‘ethnic majority’ but not international migrants-‘ethnic minority’, even more so if the latter speak little Russian and/or wear a hijab. As a result, playgrounds witness the formation of two distinct ‘social circles’ of the ‘ethnic minority’ and ‘ethnic majority’ with few contacts between them, most of which are of a conflicting nature. Lack of interaction together with presence in the same space leads to the creation of a negative interpretation of each other’s behavior from both sides.

185–205

Katerina Polivanova - Doctor of Sciences in Psychology, Professor, Director of the Center for Modern Childhood Research, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: kpolivanova@mail.ru

Aleksandra Bochaver - Candidate of Sciences in Psychology, Research Fellow, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: a-bochaver@yandex.ru

Anastasiya Nisskaya - Candidate of Sciences in Psychology, Research Fellow, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: anastasiyanisskaya@yandex.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation

The behavior of fifth-grade students from a Moscow school was observed during 12 weeks as an iteration of a similar project undertaken in the mid‑1960s [Elkonin, Dragunova 1967]. Since the original research results were represented not as a text but as individual descriptions of 13 school students, observation criteria had to be identified. The criteria were grouped into so-called spheres, describing how teenagers behave among peers, at home, and at school. The key behavioral characteristic was the indicators of the emerging feeling of adulthood in school children, i. e. of the drive for grown-up behavior, associated with freedom and responsibility. These criteria formed the basis of the 2016 observation program. The diversity of adolescent behavioral patterns has been found to be much greater than in the original study. In addition, the linear formula of the value of learning being replaced with that of communication with peers (close interpersonal relationships) has been brought into question. As it transpires, the value of learning remains high for most fifth-graders, regardless of whether they need communication or not. Such an attitude towards learning might be encouraged by family and school, which is typical for this category of children. Four types of school students have been identified based on the indicators of their interest in learning and communication. The article cites fragments of observation protocols and semi-structured interviews. Hypotheses on how the transition to adolescence is affected by family and school characteristics have been put forward, and further observations of school students with different background have been designed.

Education Statistics and Sociology

206–233

Inna Antipkina - Junior Researcher at the Center for Monitoring the Quality in Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: iantipkina@hse.ru

Marina Kuznetsova - Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogy, Research Fellow at the Center for Monitoring the Quality in Education, Institute of Education, National Research  niversity Higher School of Economics. E-mail: mikuznetsova@hse.ru

Elena Kardanova - Candidate of Sciences in Mathematics and Physics, Associate Professor, Head of Center for Monitoring the Quality in Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: ekardanova@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

This study looked at the effects of phonological preparedness and vocabulary size in children, who just started primary school, on their progress in reading at the end of the first grade while controlling for other factors that can be related to increasing or decreasing reading achievements (such as SES, parenting activities and noncognitive development of children). The study was conducted using data from the iPIPS project which assesses the preparedness of children for schooling and their progress at the end of the first school year. The sample consisted of 2740 first-graders living in two large Russian cities (Krasnoyarsk and Kazan) whose reading skills were assessed twice, at the beginning and at the end of the 2014–2015 school year. The results demonstrated that low levels of phonological ability and vocabulary are related to lower results not only for those who just started  learning to read (as is suggested by the theoretical framework of reading skills acquisitions) but also for children who already have basic reading skills or read well. To compensate for this, special teaching approaches might be needed. Among family factors the main predictors or reading results were the level of the father’s education and language at home. Parenting activities related to reading were divided into informal (reading a book, discussing a book, reading street signs out loud during walks etc.) and formal (deliberate teaching of letters and writing letters or words), with informal activities being a significant predictor of reading outcomes at the end of the first year. Conclusions and limitations of the study are discussed.

234–257

Andrey Zakharov - Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, Head of the International Laboratory for Education Policy Analysis, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: ab.zakharov@gmail.com

Anastasiya Kapuza - Intern Researcher at the International Laboratory for Education Policy Analysis, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: akapuza@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation

It is well known that reading literacy of a child is related to the family cultural capital. Parents involvement in their children education is what explains this relationship to a large extent. In this paper, we analyze what teaching practices parents of different cultural capital choose to teach their children to read before school and in the fourth grade. For this purpose, we use PIRLS2011 data. Formal (ABC games, word games, writing) and informal (reading together, discussing a book, storytelling) practices are explored. We find that parents with different level of education choose different teaching-to-read strategies. College-educated parents engage in their children preschool education more often and prefer informal practices. They are also more likely to use a compensation strategy if their children do not attend a kindergarten. Lower-educated parents support their child’s reading more actively in the fourth grade. Their preschool support is largely restricted to the reinforcement strategy of involvement in learning — they are more involved if their child attends a kindergarten. This paper also investigates the relationship between various teaching-toread practices and children’s reading literacy before school and at the fourth grade.

Discussion

258–282

Lev Lyubimov - Doctor of Sciences in Economics, Professor, Faculty of Economic Sciences, National Research University, Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St, 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: llubimov@hse.ru

Lev Lyubimov regards Oleg Lebedev’s article The End of Compulsory Education? as a landmark in the field of general education research. For his part, he elaborates and complements the answers given to the questions raised by Lebedev: who should be taugh t what, how, and what for. The author insists on the importance of training school and preschool teachers on a regular basis. In particular, they should be taught developmental psychology,  echniques of inculcating cognitive competencies and Internet skills in students. Teaching parents is no less important, as they should take seriously the duty of teaching and educating their children. Lyubimov elaborates the notion of activity experience as the backbone of authentic learning, dialogue and group work as the key mechanisms of intellectual development. He also cites the experience of the HSE University-School Cluster, which has been solving the pedagogical tasks stipulated by the learning standards.