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2016. no4

Theoretical and Applied Research

8–30

Kirill Maslinsky - Research Fellow, Laboratory of Sociology in Education and Science, National Research University Higher School of Economics (Saint Petersburg). E-mail: kmaslinsky@hse.ru
Valeria Ivaniushina - Candidate of Sciences in Biology, Leading Researcher, Laboratory of Sociology in Education and Science, National Research University Higher School of Economics (Saint Petersburg). E-mail: ivaniushina@hse.ru

Address: 16 Soyuza Pechatnikov ul., Saint Petersburg 2190121, Russian Federation

The present study examines structural and socio-psychological factors affecting attitudes towards quitting profession among school teachers. We explore effects of perceived workplace difficulties, employment opportunities, self-efficacy beliefs, and emotional attachment to teaching profession. The survey was conducted among public secondary school teachers in Saint Petersburg, Russia (N = 730). The regression analysis revealed that self-efficacy beliefs and professional commitment are the strongest predictors for
retention, some work-related stress factors contribute to the likelihood of switching profession, while the number of years of teaching experience and work experience outside of teaching have no effect. The results do not support the hypothesis that early-career teachers are more tolerant to switching professions. The implications for retaining teachers in the profession are discussed.


31–58

Vladimir Laptev - Professor, Member of the Russian Academy of Education, Vice-President of the Russian Academy of Education. Address: 8 Pogodinskaya ul., 119121 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: vice.president@raop.ru
Lyudmila Larchenkova - Doctor of Sciences in Pedagogy, Professor, Chair of Methodology of Teaching Physics, Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia. Address: 48 Reki Moyki nab., 191186 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. E-mail: larludmila@yandex.ru

We have analyzed the topics of the candidate’s and doctor’s degree theses on theory and methods of teaching physics defended in 2000–2015. In the paper, we justify using a thesis database to identify the key areas of research in this field. We describe how thesis topics are distributed across levels of education (secondary and tertiary), how topics of the theses dealing with tertiary education are distributed across specializations and areas of research defined by the formal specialty description. We also identify the most active research topics in theory and methods of teaching physics as well as top-priority research avenues for the foreseeable future.


59–83

Natalia Maloshonok - Candidate of Sciences in Sociology, Research Fellow, Center of Sociology of Higher Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: nmaloshonok@hse.ru

This research was performed to investigate the correlations between using the Internet and multimedia technology by university teachers and four styles of student engagement. The study was based on the data collected in 2015 from 11 universities (the total sample included 16,893 Bachelor’s or Specialist’s degree students) as part of the Trajectories and Experience of Russian University Students Project. The findings support the hypothesis about positive correlation between using the Internet and multimedia technology, on the one hand, and student engagement in learning and interaction with peers and professors, on the other hand. The more widely multimedia technology is used by teachers, the higher academic and social engagement of students and their commitment to meet teachers’ high requirements — and the lower their engagement in academic non-performance.


84–105

Alina Ivanova - Junior Researcher, Center for Education Quality Monitoring, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: aeivanova@hse.ru
Marina Kuznetsova - Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogy, Research Fellow, Center for Education Quality Monitoring, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: mikuznetsova@hse.ru
Sergey Semenov - Director of the Center for Education Quality Assessment (Krasnoyarsk). Address: 9 Vysotnaya St, 660041 Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation. E-mail: sam@coko24.ru
Tamara Fedorova - Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogy, Head of the Department of Secondary Education, Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Tatarstan. Address: 9 Kremlevskaya St, 420111 Kazan, Russian Federation. E-mail: Tamara.FedorovaT@tatar.ru

Regions of Russia enjoy substantial independence in shaping their own education systems. However, there is extremely little empirical data on the specific features of development, for instance, of preschool and elementary school children in this or that region. This situation renders it difficult to make informed decisions on corrections required to meet region-specific needs. We analyzed basic mathematical and reading abilities of preschoolers in two regional centers — Krasnoyarsk and Kazan. We applied IPIPS study, which allows assessing the skills of children starting school, to a sample of about 2,750 first-graders in the two cities. As we found out, the level of basic mathematical and reading abilities correlated most strongly with such factors as sociocultural capital, preschool learning experience, and language spoken at home. Meanwhile,
location in a specific region had virtually no impact on the skills analyzed.


Practice

106–122

Ivan Smirnov - ResearchAssistant, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: ibsmirnov@hse.ru
Elizaveta Sivak - Research Fellow, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: esivak@hse.ru
Yana Kozmina - Junior Research Fellow, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: ikozmina@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

The potential of VKontakte as a data source is now acknowledged in educational research, but little is known about the reliability of data obtained from this social network and about its sampling bias. Our article investigates the reliability of VK data, using the examples of a secondary school (766 students) and a university (15,757 students). We describe the procedure of matching V K profiles to real students. A direct comparison permitted us to identify profiles of around 18% of students. A special technique introduced in the article increased this number up to 88% for school students and up to 93% for university students. We compare age, gender and GPA of identified students and those whomwe did not find on V K. We also compare the structure of social relationships, retrieved from VK data, to the expected structure of students’ social ties. We found that the structure of ‘virtual’ social relationships reproduces both the socio-demographic division of students into classes or majors and
the spatial division into different school buildings or university campuses. To our knowledge, it is the first study of this kind and scale based on VK data. It contributes to the understanding of how reliable data from this SNS is, how its accuracy can be improved, and how it can be used in educational research.

123–143

Anastasiya Karavay - Research Fellow, Center for Economics of Lifelong Learning, Institute of Applied Economic Research, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. Address: 82 Vernadskogo Ave., 117606 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: karavayav@yandex.ru

In this paper, we analyze the rates of participation of Russian workers in continuing professional education (CPE) using Rosstat data and sociological surveys, including the 2014 and 2015 Eurobarometer in Russia. We reveal considerable differences in the percentages of workers covered by CPE across age cohorts, personnel categories, and especially industries. Our analysis shows that formalized CPE norms and standards in such industries as education and healthcare have a largely positive effect on the incidence of employee participation in advanced trainings. Next, we demonstrate that the data collection methods used by Rosstat do not allow for a comprehensive analysis of CPE participation rates in all industries, as only large and medium-sized companies are covered by the official statistics, while small businesses, which form the best part of the retail sector, are left out. Besides, the rigid regulatory framework of the official statistics makes it impossible to embrace the diversity of existing types and forms of CPE. There is no single method to measure the rate of participation in continuing education (not only professional), which we demonstrate in our review of methodologies used by Russian and foreign researchers. As a result, comparing the rates of participation in lifelong learning (including CPE) in different countries becomes a challenging task.


144–162

Svetlana Suslova - Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Associate Professor, School of Economics and Finance; Senior Research Fellow, Private-Public Interactions Center, National Research University Higher School of Economics (Perm). Address: 27 Lebedeva str., 614070 Perm, Russian Federation. E-mail: ssuslova@hse.ru

The growing demand for quality education services, as well as financial constraints faced by educational institutions produce the need for active involvement of parents and other representatives of local communities in the educational process so as to provide schools with additional resources. As a form of such involvement, non-profit organizations (NPOs) can be established to support educational institutions. In this paper, we assess the level of collective co-production in Russian school education and look for  orrelations between institutional characteristics of schools and their cooperation with NPOs. The data for research was obtained from the Unified State Register of Legal Entities (through the SPARK System), websites of municipal departments of education, and publicly available sources of information about activities of NPOs supporting schools. We reveal considerable cross-regional differences in the development of collective co-production in school education. The process is more active in provincial towns than in megalopolises: the proportion of schools supported by specifically founded NPOs is higher in many regional centers than in the capital cities. At the same time, a lot of regions have no such NPOs at all. As it turns out, NPOs are more likely to be created to support schools with a special status (gymnasiums, lyceums and specialized schools), where the parental demand for quality education services is higher. Meanwhile, we found no correlation between autonomous status of educational institutions and their participation in collective co-production. Thus, the increased degree of independence did not induce cooperation with NPOs for the purpose of raising extra-budgetary funds in this case.


Education Statistics and Sociology

163–185

Elena Avraamova - Doctor of Sciences in Economics, Professor, Head of the Laboratory for Social Development Research, Institute of Social Analysis and Forecasting, Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. E-mail: avraamova-em@ranepa.ru
Dmitry Loginov - Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Senior Researcher, Institute of Social Analysis and Forecasting, Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. E-mail: loginov-dm@ranepa.ru

Address: 11 Prechistenskaya Quay, 119034 Moscow, Russian Federation

We analyze results of the fourth wave of the annual monitoring of school effectiveness conducted by the Center of Economy of Continuous Education of the Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA) since the academic year 2012/13. Based on a survey of school principals, teachers and parents, we build quite a holistic picture of school education evolution and changes to its components, such as staffing of school, teaching quality, as well as professionalism, salaries and social positions of teachers. The development of the school education system from the perspective of principals and teachers is compared to the parental requirements for school education. We also show the effects of the downturn economy on education, in particular the cuts to school funding. Teachers report a decrease in their salaries. Egalitarian distribution of incentive bonuses has given way to a higher differentiation in payment of teachers, which can be regarded as a positive effect of the efficient contract. The reduced effective demand for supplementary educational services entails a decline in extrabudgetary revenues. There has been a perceptible decrease in the territorial differentiation of payment of teachers, teacher engagement in advanced training programs, and the quality of education as such. At the same time, regional differentiation is growing. The chain of transformations launched by the remuneration reform has rejuvenated the staff composition of Russian schools, enhanced the quality of the teaching staff, and contributed to better interaction between teachers and other school education actors, but have not yet told on the quality of graduates.



Employer Attractiveness of Universities: Measurement Approaches
186–205

Sergey Alasheev - Senior Research Fellow, Privolzhsky Branch of the Federal Institute for Education Development. Address: 37 Maslennikova Ave., 443056 Samara, Russian Federation. E-mail: alasheev_s@mail.ru
Efim Kogan - Doctor of Sciences in Mathematical Physics, Professor, Research Advisor, Privolzhsky Branch of the Federal Institute for Education Development. Address: 37 Maslennikova Ave., 443056 Samara, Russian Federation. E-mail: efkogan@yandex.ru
Natalya Tyurina - Manager of MIA1 Russia Today’s Social Navigator Project. Address: 4 Zubovsky Blvd, 119021 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: nv.tyurina@rian.ru

The paper suggests principles and techniques of assessing universities based on their employer attractiveness, which is measured by the demand for its products. The role of end products is played by professionals educated, project and technological developments, as well as research findings — each of them having their own consumers. It turns out that the level of employer attractiveness
is determined by the organization of university resources: equipment and facilities, personnel, managerial structure and policies. The proposed university assessment principles provide the basis for a university ranking. university ranking, employer attractiveness, university product, assessment criteria, assessment indicators.


206–228

Ekaterina Kochergina - Research Fellow, Yuri Levada Analytical Center Autonomous Nonprofit Organization. Address: 17 Nikolskaya str., 109012 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: ekochergina@levada.ru
Ilya Prakhov - Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Associate Professor, Research Fellow, International Research Laboratory for Institutional Analysis of Economic Reforms, Center for Institutional Studies, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: iprahov@hse.ru

Regression analysis is used to explore the relationship between students’ risk attitudes and academic performance indicators: current academic achievement and the likelihood of dropping out. Using empirical data on students of a highly selective Russian university, we reveal a considerable positive correlation between risk acceptance and the likelihood of being expelled. We believe that conventional student integration and drop-out models could also consider such individual student characteristic as risk attitude. Normally, it did not use to be regarded as a factor influencing the likelihood of student departure. Risk attitude as an individual student characteristic can be involved in the process of academic integration, affecting its progress. More risk-averse students remain underintegrated in the academic environment, which is fraught with dropping out.

229–250

Valeria Ivaniushina - Candidate of Sciences in Biology; Leading Research Fellow of the Laboratory of Sociology in Education and Science, National Research University Higher School of Economics (Saint Petersburg). E-mail: ivaniushina@hse.ru
Daniil Alexandrov - Candidate of Sciences in Biology; Head of the Laboratory of Sociology in Education and Science, National Research University Higher School of Economics (Saint Petersburg). E-mail: dalexandrov@hse.ru
Ilya Musabirov - Junior Research Fellow of the Laboratory of Sociology in Education and Science, National Research University Higher School of Economics (Saint Petersburg). E-mail: ilya@musabirov.info

Address: 16 Soyuza Pechatnikov ul., 190121 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation

In this paper we explore motivational structure of students taking a challenging university course. The participants were second-year undergraduate students majoring in Economics, Sociology, Management and Humanities, enrolled in the Data Science minor. Using expectancy-value theory as a framework, we aim (1) to analyze gender differences in motivation; (2) to identify the link between the components of motivation and academic achievement; (3) to estimate the role of the previous academic achievement and educational choices. Two alternative
theoretical models are proposed and tested on empirical data. Structural equation modeling (SEM) in M Plus 7.31 was used for analysis. We found that the course is more popular among males students, who also demonstrate higher level of expectancy for success. However, there is no gender difference in academic performance. Students majoring in Sociology and Economics perceive Data Science as more interesting and useful than Management and Humanities students. SEM analysis empirically validated the model in which expectancy of success directly influences academic achievement, and values influence is mediated by expectancies. The final model that includes motivation, gender, student’s major, and previous achievement explains 34% of variance in academic performance. We discuss the role of different components of student motivation and practical significance of our results.

History of Education

251–275

Marina Fadeeva - Master of Histor y, Postgraduate Student, School of Histor y, Faculty of Humanities, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: marina.fadeeva.o@gmail.com

An inquiry into the history of creation of the Moscow University Professors’ Disciplinary Court in 1902 and into its activities allows for rethinking the status of the student community in Russian society of that time. Students had to obey the body of laws common for all Russian subjects as well as university charters and regulations, and they were also under intensive police surveillance. Analyzing the legal framework of students, reconstructing the adjudication mechanism of the Professors’ Disciplinary Court as well as specific cases based on archival materials, we can see how students were affected when the government adopted a discipline monitoring policy. University students brought before the Professors’ Disciplinary Court were charged with breaking administrative rules (most often rioting and being drunk in the street) and the university code (from passing on an I D badge to a third party to forging a professor’s signature).


Book Reviews and Survey Articles

276–289

Alexey Lyubzhin - Doctor of Sciences in Philology, Research Fellow, The Rare Books and Manuscripts Section of the Moscow State University Research Library. Address: 9 Mokhovaya str., 103073, Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: vulture@mail.ru

A detailed analysis of the author’s judgments on the key issues covered in the book — the functions of contemporary university, cooperation and competition, the “egregious audit culture”, the nature and meaning of the humanities, assessment of humanities research quality, the impact factor, and university financing — has shown that many situations actually describe the existing education system in Russia.

290–293

Alexandr Arkhangelsky - Candidate of Sciences in Philology; Full Professor, Faculty of Communications, Media, and Design, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: arkhangelsky@hse.ru

The book represents a collection of articles written at different times, all devoted to the development of school students’ reading competencies in today’s world. The author is convinced that diverse approaches should be used to engage high school students in reading, depending on the student’s interests and personal characteristics. There is no (and there cannot be any) oneandonly methodology or any single dominant educational model in this everchanging world.