2016. no3

Theoretical and Applied Research


Yulia Tyumeneva - Candidate of Sciences in Psychology, Associate Professor, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: jtiumeneva@hse.ru
Irina Shkliaeva - Master of Psychology, Analyst, Moscow Center for Education Quality. Address: 9a Vtoroy Verkhniy Mikhaylovskiy pass., 115419 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: irshklyaeva@gmail.com

The patterns of knowledge application in new situations are explored from the perspectives of modeling and transfer. We provide an overview of studies to compare these two conceptions and get a comprehensive idea of which psychological processes are involved in knowledge application, what will change in research and teaching practices if the conceptual frameworks change, and how these conceptions can contribute to each other. We show that analyzing the problem structure and comparing problem models in different representational systems are the key prerequisites for a successful knowledge application in both conceptions. Based on the data obtained, we draw conclusions about approaches to education promoting effective knowledge application and about training problem assessment criteria.

Leading Online Education from Participation to Success

Paula Kelly - PhD Research Fellow at the Centre for the Study of Higher Education, University of Melbourne. E-mail: kelly.p@unimelb.edu.au
Hamish Coates - Professor - Head of the Chair of Higher Education at the Centre for the Study of Higher Education (CSHE), University of Melbourne. E-mail: hamishc@unimelb.edu.au
Ryan Naylor - PhD Senior Lecturer at Victoria University. E-mail: rnaylor@unimelb.edu.au

Address: Elisabeth Murdoch Building (Building 134), Spencer Road, The University of Melbourne, VIC3010, Australia

Online education has grown exponentially over the last few decades, churning through a swarm of acronyms, ambiguities and potentialities. Substantial energy has been invested in producing technology, building academic capability, and understanding learners and markets. Though it feels pervasive, online education is comparatively new in the scheme of higher education, and key education and business models remain in formation. To spur advancement, this paper argues that as online education matures increasing energy must shift from admissions and provision to ensuring each learner’s success. We argue that online education presents new opportunities not just for the mechanics of higher education, but for improving each student’s experience and outcomes. Central to such advancement is a clear picture of study success, cogent perspectives for understanding students, effective strategies for analysing and interpreting huge volumes of data, and more evidence-based academic leadership. The paper investigates each of these areas, provoking what institutions could seek to achieve. higher education, online education, quality of education, student’s experience, evidence-based academic leadership.


Ekaterina Krekhovets - Senior Lecturer at the Department of Economic Theory and Econometrics, Faculty of Economics, National Research University—Higher School of Economics (Campus in Nizhny Novgorod). E-mail: ekrekhovets@hse.ru
Oleg Poldin - Candidate of Sciences in Radio Physics, Senior Researcher at the International Research Laboratory for Institutional Analysis of Economic Reforms, National Research University—Higher School of Economics, Moscow. E-mail: opoldin@hse.ru

Address: 25/12 Bolshaya Pecherskaya str., 603155 Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation.

Thе social capital of students is an important resource developed at university, along with professional competencies. We analyze friendship and study help networks among first-year students, examine network structures, and calculate network parameters and correlations between them. Student relations in different programmes are identical in nature, which is proven by similar structures of both friendship and help networks. We identify statistically significant correlations between network parameters of outcoming and incoming interpersonal ties, as well as between academic performance and peer network status. Friendship ties are more numerous, stable and reciprocal than study help ones. Each network has students who hold the key positions in terms of betweenness and popularity. Academic performance is a significant factor affecting student status in study help networks. We suggest that students holding the key positions in both betweenness and popularity enjoy the best opportunities for using their social capital. higher education, social capital, social networks, study help networks, friendship networks, popularity, network centrality, betweenness.



Daniel Kontowski - PhD student at University of Winchester and University of Warsaw. Address: Department of Education Studies and Liberal Arts, Alwyn Middle, University of Winchester, SO22 4NR Winchester, UK. E-mail: daniel@kontowski.com

The article presents the case study of Wagner College curriculum as an example of paradoxical transformation within contemporary liberal education. The Wagner Plan for Practical Liberal Arts is an important example of overcoming the traditional liberal/vocational distinction in higher education, that has been increasingly challenged by both the economic condition of colleges and wider changes in skills required by the workforce of developed countries. The Wagner College case is not widely acknowledged, yet it may be important for European liberal education institutions. Even though they are mostly public colleges/programs, they operate in a context that has become increasingly similar to that which Wagner College was facing in the early 1990s. Calls for more liberal education go against governmental expectations, study choices and disciplinary traditions of institutions. Wagner buildson the triple assumption that learning is really practical, that higher education can have a practical impact on a local community and that broad interdisciplinary knowledge is even more useful preparation for a future career. Such claims, even though controversial, fit well with the pragmatic consensus in American “pragmatic consensus” that strengthened around liberal arts in last three decades. For Eastern European liberal education, which is a growing field, Wagner provides an interesting example of holistic educational vision that was implemented with relatively limited resources. Apart from administrators, this study may also be of interest to teachers and students who consider the traditional academic setting due to be revamped, even in liberal education programs. Any strategy of development of liberal education in Eastern Europe require scaling up and making it more relevant for major stakeholders (as happened in the Netherlands and is now taking place in the UK), as well as overcoming the neoliberal pressures and academic reluctance. The Wagner case example may spark much needed discussionon how to accomplish it without losing our soul. Eastern Europe, civic engagement, liberal education, liberal arts education, pragmatism, higher education, practical liberal arts.


Natalya Derbyshire - Analyst at the Center of Social and Economic School Development, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: NatalyaDerbyshire@gmail.com
Marina Pinskaya - Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogy, Leading Research Fellow at the Center of Social and Economic School Development, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: m-pinskaya@yandex.ru.

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

The article evaluates the effectiveness of schools with regard to their contextual characteristics. We use the data from the 2012/2013 Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations, namely the results of a survey among the principals of 979 schools. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to reveal the factors promoting differentiation of the average USE (Unified State Exam) score across the schools. The analysis results were used to develop an academic achievement contextualization model allowing the evaluation of school performance in the context of individual characteristics. We identified a group of schools that may be regarded as high-performing, i. e. showing ultimate performance under the existing conditions, and analyzed the management strategies of the school principals. These strategies turned out to be mostly based on attracting human resources: teachers, students and their parents. High-performing schools implement a consistent selection policy. They enroll children from families with a higher socioeconomic status, which gives them a head start in terms of academic attainment. Such schools also attract committed parents who will encourage their children towards higher achievements.


Mani Man Singh Rajbhandari - PhD, Postdoctoral Researcher, Department of Educational Leadership and Management Faculty of Education, University of Johannesburg (Republic of South Africa). Address: Faculty of Education, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006, Republic of South Africa. E-mail: mannierajbhandari@hotmail.com

This research explores the behavioural leadership style of community schools in Nepal under the New Public Management (NPM) initiative of decentralisation of the educational management system. The theoretical background derives from the leadership behavioural theory of Ohio State and Michigan Universities. Case studies were conducted in three primary community schools located in Kathmandu. Interviews were conducted with school stakeholders and members of the school management committee in order to triangulate the data analysis with a view to validating the dominant leadership behavioural style. The result suggests that all the participating schools adopted relations-oriented leadership behaviour as the dominant leadership behavioural style. The decentralisation of educational management by using NPM in community schools enabled the appointment of leaders from the community. It was also revealed that school leaders contributed to the social welfare of the schools for the sake of prestige and political recognition. The school leaders made available lesser time to understand the school’s organisational behavioural pattern of the teachers, parents, students and academic programmes. This enabled the school leaders to demonstrate relations-oriented behaviour. Due to the lack of academic expertise, the effective approach of leadership was to adapt chiefly on relations-oriented behaviour. Adopting the dominant leadership relations-oriented behavioural style enabled less flexibility to switch to task-oriented behaviour as determined by the contested environment. The politically contested school context enabled leadership approaches to implement political solutions.


Galina Larina - Postgraduate Student, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: glarina@hse.ru

The Russian education standards stress the importance of real-life applications of mathematics. However, the performance standards do not provide a clear idea of how a math teacher should organize their syllabus to develop such skills in students. As long as there is no universal definition of a real-world math problem, it is rather uneasy to qualify the problems that teachers use in classrooms. We analyzed algebra problems that teachers give to secondary school students. 83 text problems were coded using three parameters: situational importance, mathematical modeling, and novelty of problem posing. We carried out a cluster analysis to identify typical categories of mathematical problems. As a result, we determined three types of problems differing in the abovementioned characteristics. Only one cluster appeared to feature all the tree characteristics typical of real-life word problems. Therefore, part of the problems that teachers give students as real-world fail to qualify as such according to the proposed theoretical model. secondary school, algebra, real-world math problems, everyday context, math word problems, transfer of learning, mathematical modeling.

Education Statistics and Sociology


Ilya Kashnitskiy - Junior Research Fellow, Institute for Social Policy, National Research University Higher School of Economics; PhD Candidate, University of Groningen / Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute. E-mail: ilya.kashnitsky@gmail.com
Nikita Mkrtchyan - Candidate of Sciences in Geography, Leading Research Fellow, Center for Demographical Studies, Institute of Demography, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: Mkrtchan2002@rambler.ru
Oleg Leshukov - Junior Research Fellow, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: oleshukov@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation 

Not dissimilar to many other countries, migration in Russia has a pronounced age-dependent pattern with the peak intensity at the age when people obtain higher and professional education. In this paper, we analyze migration intensity at student age (17–21) using three sources of demographic data with regard to their key opportunities and limitations. We compare the migration attractiveness of Russian regions in three ways. First, we apply APC analysis to the current migration statistical data, separately for two periods: 2003–2010 and 2011–2013. The reason for sampling these two periods is because there was a significant change in the migration statistics collection practices in 2011. Second, we use the age-shift method to analyze the data of the 2002 and 2010 Russian censuses. We offer a way to refine the census data by discarding the non-migration-related changes in the age-sex structure. Finally, we use information about the ratio between the number of school graduates and that of full-time high school enrolments in the academic years 2012/13 and 2013/14 across the regions. Based on the four indicators of migration intensity (intercensal estimates, statistical records for the two periods, and the graduate-enrolment ratio), we develop a rating of Russian regions in migration attractiveness for student-aged youths. A position in this rating depends not only on the level of higher education development in a region but also on the consistent patterns of interregional migration in Russia. The regions in the European part of the country have a much higher chance to attract migrants at student ages.

How Students Develop and Meet Their Need for Additional Education

Anatoliy Merenkov - Doctor of Sciences in Philosophy, Professor, Director of the Department of Political Science and Sociology, Head of the Department of Applied Sociology, Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B. N. Yeltsin. E-mail: Anatoly.mer@gmail.com
Anastasiya Sushchenko - Postgraduate Student at the Department of Applied Sociology, Junior Researcher at the Research Laboratory for University Development Issues, Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B. N. Yeltsin. E-mail: a.sushchenko_@mail.ru

Address: 19 Mira str., 620002 Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation

We analyze how university students develop and meet their need for additional education as the critical way to engage in lifelong learning, which begins during the student days and continues throughout the life cycle. The article investigates into the theoretical approaches to the nature, content and orientation of the need for additional education, identifying the key factors encouraging university students to acquire additional major-related knowledge so as to sharpen their competitive edge in the labor market. We show that 71% of students experience the need for additional education, and 51% have already received some along with their regular university studies. We rely upon the determination theory to allow for not only extrinsic factors of development of the need for additional education (employer requirements, current trends) but also intrinsic ones (commitment to increasing one’s competitiveness in the labor market, the need for personal fulfillment). The article also explores how students develop and meet their need for supplementary knowledge and skills depending on their major field of study. We suggest taking specific measures to develop the additional education system, notably developing more actively students’ need for constant improvement of their competitive power and better self-fulfillment in career and life, and expanding significantly the range of services offered by additional education institutions.

History of Education


Petr Safronov - Candidate of Sciences in Philosophy, Researcher, Centre for Research of Innovations in Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: psafronov@hse.ru
Ksenia Sidorova - Intern, Centre for Research of Innovations in Education, Institute of Education,National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: sidorovakd@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

The innovative pedagogical movement that boosted in the second half of the 1980s exhausted its original momentum relatively soon and never became a sustainable factor of institutional development in Russia. In this article, we investigate into the reasons behind the pedagogical movement using interviews with participants and narrative analysis of periodicals and archival materials. By doing so, we justify the point that the goal of promoting subjective emancipation and adopting the culture of freedom dominated the goals of organizational project management. We show that the pedagogical movement was dependent on institutional arrangements engrained in the social order of the late Soviet era. Innovations developed within the framework of a specific situation: individual communities emerging around some authors were capable of establishing the new as a subjective legacy, but they were unable to develop or even retain it in the existing institutionalized arrangements.

Book Reviews and Survey Articles


Alena Nefedova - Research Assistant at the Laboratory for Economics of Innovation, Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge; postgraduate student, Higher School of Economics National Research University. Address: 9/11 Myasnitskaya str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: anefedova@hse.ru

Using a regression analysis involving an array of empirical data, Richard Münch describes the results of the changes that have been observed in universities since the 1970s. These changes entail a number of negative effects, among which the author puts emphasis on using mostly quantitative indicators to assess research and other university activities, as well as on the increasing commercialization of research results. Consequently, the higher education system is becoming ever more stratified, with a growing gap between the “nucleus” of universities with a powerful economic, cultural and social capital and the “periphery” lagging behind. This is lowering the overall level of creativity in research and slowing down the rate of new knowledge production. Münch’s book is of the utmost interest for Russian researchers in higher education, especially in the context of the newly adopted policy of boosting competitiveness of Russian education in the international arena. academic capitalism, entrepreneurial university, academic autonomy, commercialization of education, new managerialism.


Alexey Lyubzhin - Doctor of Sciences in Philology, Research Fellow, The Rare Books and Manuscripts Section of the Moscow State University Research Library. Address: 9 Mokhovaya str., 103073, Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: vulture@mail.ru

The Voprosy obrazovaniya Library has issued another edition of Philip W. Jackson’s book Life in Classrooms, first published in 1968. The book analyzes the fundamental phenomena of the educational process: learning environment, assessment, incentives, student attention and engagement management, teacher’s authority manifestation, formal and informal curricula, and teacher performance. However, the book pays too little attention to the curriculum content—a “blind spot” typical of most American school analysts. elementary school, learning environment, assessment, informal curriculum, students’ attitude towards schooling, engagement.

Reflections on…


Anatoliy Tsirulnikov - Doctor of Sciences in Pedagogy, Professor, Academician of the Russian Academy of Education; Chief Research Associate and Exploratory Research Manager, Federal Institute for Education Development under the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. Address: 9/1 Chernyakhovskogo str., 129319 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: atsirulnik@mail.ru

The key features of sociocultural modernization of education (SCME) and its distinction from technocratic modernization are examined here. The tools and the main principles of sociocultural education development techniques are disclosed. The experience and results of introducing SCME in the Northern economic region are described. We also provide an insight into the sociocultural projects implemented in the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, where education is considered to be a tool for solving sociocultural problems of local communities and advancing regional development. Finally, we evaluate the risks of bringing sociocultural modernization to an education system, the prospects and opportunities of promoting SCME in Russia.

sociocultural approach to education development, sociocultural modernization of education, sociocultural strategies, sociocultural education projects.


Tatyana Klyachko - Doctor of Sciences in Economics, Dean of the Center for Continuing Education Economics, Institute for Social Analysis and Forecasting, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Professor, National Research University—Higher School of Economics. E-mail: tlk@ranepa.ru. Address: 82, Vernadskogo pr., 119571, Moscow, Russian Federation

Gita Steiner-Khamsi’s opposition of two teacher salary systems, the “teaching load” (stavka) system and the weekly workload system, does not seem very productive. The author’s analysis of the teacher salary reform in Kyrgyzstan and of the overcrowding of schools appears to make much more sense. Gita Steiner-Khamsi’s article is also surprisingly interesting in that it gives the idea of how researchers analyze the processes in foreign education systems. teacher salary systems, teaching load, weekly workload system, teacher salary reforms, overcrowding of schools.