2014. no4

Educational Policies


Simon Marginson - Professor of International Higher Education, Institute of Education, University of London. Address: 20 Bedford Way, London WC1H 0AL, United Kingdom. E-mail: s.marginson@ioe.ac.uk

Since the end of the Soviet period much has changed, though in higher education and science, the world outside Russia may have changed more than the world within. In the Internet era all national research systems have become partly subsumed in the one English-language global science system, while still retaining distinct national identities. Most innovations in technology and product development are now sourced wholly or partly from global sources. It is essential to become very good at accessing global science, which means producing global science, and collaborating with others. Russian science remains surprisingly decoupled from world science. Global publication and citation rates at the leading universities are ver y low compared to their counterparts abroad. Between 1995 and 2012, international co-authorship of journal papers increased by 168 per cent at world level, and multiplied by ten times in China, but internationally joint papers rose by only 35 per cent in Russia. The lack of internationalization of Russian universities and science, coupled with the continued running down of the Soviet legacy, contributes to the country’s weak performance in research rankings, both  objectively (real research paper output is falling, and Russia has been left well behind by dynamic developments in China and the rest of East Asia, and to a lesser extent by Brazil and India) and also subjectively (there are substantial national research strengths in areas like engineering, manufacturing,  engineering and strategic industries but the work is mostly done in Russian and not published in global journals, so it is invisible). Achieving five universities in the world top 100, the national policy goal, is a long way off. It has taken China and Singapore two decades to build world-class systems and policy makers in Russia need a long view. There is real scope for rapid improvement however. Currently low levels of internationalization are a strategic opportunity. When cross-border cooperation, publishing, and benchmarking are stepped up significantly, as in the East Asian science systems, major gains can be made in Russia.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2014-4-8-35

Theoretical and Applied Research


Erik de Corte - Professor Emeritus, Center for Instructional Psychology and Technology (CIP&T), University of Leuven, Belgium. Address: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Oude Markt, 13, Bus 5005 3000 Leuven, Belgium. E-mail: Erik.DeCorte@ppw.kuleuven.be

The emergence of national evaluation schemes in higher education in Western Europe occurred in the mid-1980s, and originated in The Netherlands, Flanders, France and the United Kingdom. In the years thereafter many other Western European countries established similar evaluation systems. Over the past thirty years these systems have undergone important changes. This article discuss the following topics relating to evaluation in Western European higher education. What were the causes for the establishment of schemes for the evaluation of higher education institutions in Western Europe in the mid-1980s? Defining main concepts relating to the evaluation of higher education programs: quality assurance, quality, quality control, quality management, quality audit, quality assessment, evaluation, and accreditation. Quality assessment introduced in the mid-1980s lasted till the start of the 21th century, and focused on contributing to the improvement of higher education. The Dutch system of quality assessment that was representative for Western Europe will be presented. Notwithstanding the largely positive influence of the quality assessment system, in the early years of the 21st century a shift occurred in Western Europe from quality assessment to accreditation defined as a formal judgment that the quality of a degree course or an institution meets certain standards. Although based on quality assessment this approach shifted the focus from improvement to accountability. As an example the Dutch accreditation scheme will be discussed. Because of the shift from improvement to accountability, but also because of the bureaucratic burden and the expensiveness, the accreditation scheme was more and more heavily criticized. This led to very intensive discussions and consultations that resulted in a revised accreditation system that is operational in The Netherlands since 2012. The major changes in the accreditation approach will be reviewed. The article concludes with some final comments and a future perspective.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2014-4-36-57



Gordey Yastrebov - Candidate of Sciences in Sociology, Senior Research Fellow, Laboratory for Comparative Analysis of Post-Socialist Development, National Research University—Higher School of Economics; Doctoral Student, European University Institute (Florence, Italy). E-mail: g.yastrebov@hse.ru

Marina Pinskaya - Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogy, Leading Research Fellow, Center of Social and Economic School Development, Institute of Education, National Research University—Higher School of Economics. E-mail: m-pinskaya@yandex.ru

Sergey Kosaretsky - Candidate of Sciences in Psychology, Director, Center of Social and Economic School Development, Institute of Education, National Research University — Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation. E-mail: skosaretski@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation.

The paper suggests an approach to assessing performance of educational institutions with regard to their social specifics. To develop this approach, the authors relied upon 1) results of numerous studies proving correlations between student performance and contextual factors (both in Russia and abroad); 2) foreign colleagues’ experience of solving similar problems; and 3) the idea of providing minimum required information to enable such assessments in contemporary Russia. The fundamental idea lying behind the proposed assessment tool is that, having necessary data at hand, one can identify empirically stable correlations between student performance and contextual factors (e. g. different social composition of students). In research practice, these correlations were revealed through multiple regression analysis. Results of such analysis—established empirical correlations—may then be used to “discount” formal progress, i. e. to have justifiably higher expectations about institutions in more favorable contexts and lower expectations about those in less favorable situations. The authors think over two ways of using this information: based either on a formula or on a specific index (the  ndex of school social well-being) they have elaborated. They also draw attention towards possible constraints associated with using these tools and touch upon a more global problem of considering contextual factors in assessing the quality of education in Russia.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2014-4-58-95


Anatoly Kasprzhak - Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogy, Director, Center of Leadership Development in Education, Institute of Education, National Research University—Higher School of Economics. E-mail: agkasprzhak@hse.ru

Nadezhda Bysik - Research Fellow, Center of Leadership Development in Education, Institute of Education, National Research University—Higher School of Economics. E-mail: nbysik@hse.ru

Address: 16 Potapovskiy lane, 101000, Moscow, Russian Federation.

In this article, we discuss the results of a pilot project implemented in 2013–2014 within the frame of the Asia Leadership Project international comparative study, which continues research of school leadership in Europe and America started in 2006–2008. Apart from Russia, the pilot project also involved Australia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Having analyzed statistical reports on the Russian Federation as a whole, as well as on Moscow and Krasnoyarsk Krai in particular, we created a picture of an average school principal and identified their specific features across the regions (age, gender, years of experience, competencies, etc). Upon investigation of decision-making styles (A. Rowe’s Decision Style Inventory) used by school principals in Moscow and Krasnoyarsk and by award winners in the School Principal professional competition, we found out that contextual factors, personal and professional attitudes of a school principal have considerable effects on the school leadership style. The paper also gives an insight into the changes in school leadership styles in the recent decades, managerial methods used by Russian school principals, similarities and differences between school leadership practices in Russia and Canada. As it turned out, the directive decision-making style prevails in practices of both Moscow and Krasnoyarsk Krai school principals. The same style, which discourages efficient interaction between school administrators and teachers, is largely  adopted by Canadian school principals even after education reforms implemented in the country. Meaningfully different results were demonstrated by the sample consisting of school principals who had won in the professional competition: about 60 % among them use the conceptual school leadership style on a regular basis. Finally, we describe the conception and design of a large-scale study of the issues in question which is scheduled for future.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2014-4-96-118


Aida Sagintayeva - Ph.D. in Philology, Executive Director, Nazarbayev University Graduate School of Education (Republic of Kazakhstan). E-mail: asagintayeva@nu.edu.kz

Adil Ashirbekov - Master of Humanities, Junior Researcher, Department of Science of Nazarbayev University Graduate School of Education (Republic of Kazakhstan). E-mail: aashirbekov@nu.edu.kz

Address: 53 Kabanbay batyra pr., 010000, Astana, Republic of Kazakhstan.

Bolashak Kazakhstan International Presidential Scholarship was introduced to provide citizens with access to advanced knowledge in newly emerging fields when economy was being restructured and manufacturing industries were being pushed out by innovational ones. The Bolashak Project was launched in 1994 and involved 6,282 people by 2013. The initiative-related experience is analyzed based on the documents regulating participation in the program and on a survey among administrators, scholars and graduates conducted by the Graduate School of Education of Nazarbayev University between 2011 and 2013. Throughout the twenty years of existence, the program has enhanced its effects in the following aspects: providing equal access to participation in the program for all citizens of the country; identifying the priority areas for degree programs; developing the list of foreign higher educational institutions to provide an opportunity for learning abroad; determining the levels of education that need financing under the program; creating conditions to make scholars of the program return to the Republic of Kazakhstan.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2014-4-119-127


Pavel Derkachev - Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Leading Research Fellow, Center for Applied Economic Research, Institute of Education, National Research University—Higher School of Economics.
Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation. E-mail: pderkachev@hse.ru

The paper provides an overview of studies dedicated to correlations between school teacher salaries and regional economics and to the local factors affecting the size of teacher salaries. The paper describes the basic teacher pay indicators in the regions: absolute salary, teacher pay level as compared to the average regional salary, ratio of salary to the average consumer bsket and to the per capita gross regional product. Based on the calculations performed using open databases of governmental authorities, a classification of regions by teacher pay levels was developed, providing seven clusters of regions. For each of the clusters, we have elaborated recommendations on teacher remuneration, identifying typical risks and challenges. These recommendations are designed to improve efficiency of activities that are part of the education policy by way of differentiating federal assistance. The conclusion is that, apart from the index of teacher pay level as compared to the average regional salary, which is the benchmark of governmental programs, one should also consider the ratios of salary to the average consumer basket and to the per capita gross regional product.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2014-4-128-147


Nataliya Tipenko - Candidate of Sciences in Economics, CEO at "Center for Universal Programs" Ltd. Address: 54/3 Michurinsky pr., 119192, Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: tipenkocmprog.org

Data obtained in the Electronic Monitoring of Education Development has been used to analyze the teacher salary trends that had evolved by 2013 and to compare teacher pay to the average regional pay levels. The 2013 data reveals that the regions find it ever harder to increase teacher pay to conform to the average economy-wide salary rate, as required by various decrees. In particular, this is confirmed through the size of year-end  premiums, which often turn out to be rather high. Month-to-month monitoring of this parameter provokes tensions in the work of governing bodies at different levels and encourages “manual management” used to achieve the desired result. Such practice conflicts with the standard planning and budgeting procedure. Budget expenditure indexes are used to compare salary levels across the subjects of the Russian Federation. When comparing the pay levels in different regions, monitoring of budget expenditure indexes allows for a deeper insight into the status of teachers and complements the parameter “deviation of teacher pay from the average pay level in the subject of the Russian Federation”. The author also discusses specifics of regional policies on incentive payments as an instrument of influencing the education quality, analyzes changes to teacher workload as an indicator of labor intensity, and gives an assessment of how regional budgets and the pursued national transfer payment policy affect the prospects of teacher pay rise in different groups of regions. All in all, analysis of the data obtained in the Electronic Monitoring of Education Quality has proved the teacher pay pattern to be extremely irregular. Regional differences depend little on the selected remuneration model, while financial constraints become an ever more dominant factor.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2014-4-148-168

Education Statistics and Sociology


Irina Davydova - Intern Researcher, International Laboratory for Institutional Analysis of Economic Reforms, National Research University — Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation. E-mail: idavydova@hse.ru

Yana Kozmina - Junior Research Fellow, Center of Leadership Development in Education, National Research University — Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation. E-mail: ikozmina@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Data of Changing Academic Profession international survey conducted uniformly in 20 countries including Russia was used to analyze factors affecting the level of occupational stress and job satisfaction among Russian professors. Based on the values of both parameters, all participating countries were divided into four groups. Russia belongs to the group with low levels of occupational stress and job satisfaction, these parameters being lower than in any other country participating in the project. We assess the correlation between these parameters and the three sets of factors: requirements to professors, resources provided by higher educational institutions for professional activities, and individual professional qualities of professors, i. e. their sociodemographic characteristics. In Russia, just like in other countries with low levels of occupational stress and job satisfaction, the parameters in question have proved to correlate with satisfaction with resources provided by higher educational institutions. However, unlike in other countries, Russian professors attach special importance to nonmaterial resources: personal role in specific structural subdivisions, involvement in communication, team spirit in decision-making. In Russia, stress and job satisfaction are not correlated with position, salary, or years of experience, while German and Argentinean professors, for instance, are more satisfied with their jobs if they take higher positions.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2014-4-169-183


Magnus Ligi - MA in Education, University of Tartu. E-mail: masuligi@hotmail.com

Karmen Trasberg - PhD, Lecturer, University of Tartu. E-mail: karmen.trasberg@ut.ee

Address: Ülikooli 18, 50090 Tartu, Eesti.

The article focuses on university students reasons for commiting academic fraud and students knowledge about regulations concerning academic dishonesty. A qualitative study has been carried out with students from Estonia, Finland and USA, consisting of eight in-depth interviews. Qualitative inductive content analysis was used to analyze the data. A document analysis has been carried out to provide a comparative look into how different universities regulate academic fraud. The results indicate that students commit academic fraud mainly because of individual reasons such as not being able to memorize the necessary amount of material and that students are not very well aware or the regulations concerning academic dishonesty. The study shows the need for Estonian and Finnish universities to develop their strategies on dealing with academic dishonesty and promoting academic integrity.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2014-4-184-208



Mikhail Pavlovets - Candidate of Sciences in Philology, Associate Professor, School of Philology, Faculty of Humanities, HSE. E-mail: pavlovez@mail.ru. Address: Myastitskaya, 20, Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation.

Igor Remorenko - Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogy, Rector, Moscow City Pedagogical University. E-mail: inik2001@mail.ru
Address: 4 Selskokhozyaystvenny proyezd, 129226, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Abelyuk Evgenya - honoured teacher of the Russian Federation, Assosiate Professor, Institute of Education, HSE. E-mail: abelyuk@gmail.com Address: Myastitskaya, 20, Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation.

A survey of first-year philology students was conducted in autumn 2008 at Moscow Humanitarian Pedagogical Institute (MHPI) with a purpose to explore their reading interests and to get an idea of how they had read the required school reading books — whether in full, in short summaries, or in excerpts. The same survey was conducted in 2013 among first-year philology students of the Institute of Humanities at Moscow City Pedagogical University, of which the MHPI became part in 2012. We discovered that high-school students did not read all dramatic and epic required reading books in full and showed little interest towards books telling about the painful points of the Russian history (collectivization, repressions, famine, etc.) or stories with complicated plots. The list of particularly important books has changed insignificantly, consisting almost entirely of required school reading books and foreign books, with their number reduced by a third for the last five years. The scope of reading interests also proved to involve mainly foreign literature and to have shrunken in the last five years. The required reading list and the number of books actually read by high-school graduates do not coincide: even philology-oriented school students read many books in excerpts or simplified versions. Literature as a school subject does not create enough motivation to read what is referred to as national literary classics. We find it necessary to revise the conventional attitudes to state prescriptions for teaching literature, to refuse from rigid required reading book lists, and to switch to a competency-based model of literary education outlined in the Federal State Literature Standards. A transition like that will require revision of the existing approaches to testing reading and speaking competencies of  school leavers through the Unified State Examination.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2014-4-209-226

History of Education


Elena Kalinina - Candidate of Sciences in History, Research Fellow, Petrozavodsk State University.
Address: 33 Lenina pr., Petrozavodsk, the Republic of Karelia, 185910, Russian Federation. E-mail: kalinka46@yandex.ru

The paper investigates into the basic components of the education reform introduced during the reign of Nicholas I: abolishment of continuum in the schooling system, valid education at each stage in school, considerable changes to general school curriculum, enhanced control and supervision. A number of decrees, charters and regulations were issued to establish various types of educational institutions: gymnasia, district colleges, boarding schools, academies for clerks’ children, private primary schools, and village schools. As a result, the network of educational institutions was essentially expanded. Lower educational institutions under the Most Holy Synod, the Ministry of State Property, Department of Mining, and other agencies made primary education accessible to a lot of children in villages of state-owned peasants. The rules of control, management and supervision in the department of education were strictly defined, with much focus placed on the legal and social status of Russian teachers. Teacher retirement insurance became a progressive step in development of labor legislation. Reactionary policy in the reign of Nicholas I was intensified, in particular, through the growth in number of officers performing supervision and control over educational institutions. The system of dual school subordination increased the flow of paperwork and messed up the control system. Seemingly trivial issues could hardly be resolved locally. For instance, approval of the central government bodies was required to appoint gymnasium superintendents, to introduce new curricula, to provide summer vacations for teachers, to ensure incentives for good work, or to develop the examination procedure. The relatively independent university management in subordinate educational districts, which had been adopted in the early 19th century, was gradually fading out to give way to clear arrangement of control and supervision over the schooling system.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2014-4-227-245


Ekaterina Zharova - Candidate of Sciences in Biology, Independent Researcher. E-mail: zharova_ekaterina@bk.ru

The first half of the 19th century witnessed the evolution of the university system in the Russian Empire, which ended in the reign of Nicholas I. Particularly, rules of organizing entrance, transfer and final examinations were developed. The Decree of 1819 on Awarding Academic Degrees consolidated the correlation between the academic degrees awarded to students and candidates and the grades of the Table of Ranks. (This Decree was also associated with introduction of course-based learning, which was later affirmed by the Decree of 1835.) While examinations had been a mere formality prior to this consolidation, from that moment success or failure in an exam meant earning or losing the degree that provided employment benefits. The system of student performance assessment that had been formed at that point was valid throughout a long period of time with minor changes only. Universities didn’t have any unified assessment system in the very beginning of the 19th century, so each professor would develop their own learning and student performance assessment criteria, giving marks depending on each specific student’s performance instead of boxing performance into a strict pattern of marks. It was then that the five-grade assessment scale was introduced and gained wide practice.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2014-4-246-259

Book Reviews and Survey Articles


Jarkko Hautamäki - Professor (emeritus), University of Helsinki, Centre for Educational Assesment; Honorary Professor, Faculty of Psychology, Moscow State University; Academician, Academy of Educational and Social Sciences (Russia). Адрес: University of Helsinki, P. O. Box 33, Yliopistonkatu 4, 00014, Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: jarkko.hautamaki@helsinki.fi

Today’s Finnish education started 1968 with a radical reform, when a new comprehensive system of education was introduced, to comprise nine grades, from the age 7 to 15. Since 2000, after the first PISA results, interest in Finnish education started and still, to some extent, continues. Taken all PISA rounds (2000, 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012), Finland is still among the best 5% of world’s educational systems. There are basically three important features, which make Finland an interesting case: high results are combined with high equity, and no high-stakes testing in the basic education. Sahlberg identifies four strategic principles, well accepted in Finland: quarantee equal opportunities to good public education for all; strengthen professionalism of and trust in teachers; steer educational change through enriched information about the process of schooling and smart assessment policies; facilitate network-based school improvement collaboration between schools and non-governmental associations and groups. He also predicts that four themes of change would emerge: development of a personal road map for learning; less classroom-based teaching; development of interpersonal skills and problem solving; engagement and creativity as pointers of success.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2014-4-260-268


Aleksey Lyubzhin - Doctor of Sciences, Research Fellow, The Rare Books and Manuscripts Department of the Lomonosov Moscow State University Library. Address: 9, Mokhovaya str., 103073, Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: vulture@mail.ru

Analyzing the book written by the creator of the most reputable pre-revolutionary methodology of teaching Russian philology, we compare Alfyorov’s views with contemporary beliefs and associate them with problems that are debated today in academic and teaching communities. Particularly, we discuss proportion of methodological and subject-specific components in teacher professional qualification; educative and upbringing objectives of secondary school; role of the mother tongue in the curriculum structure; distribution of subjects in secondary school syllabus; importance of literary standards, popular language and individual language arts; inconsistency between school language rules and linguistics as a science; simplification of orthography. Specific attention is given to writing as a means of development and control at school. The key pre-requisite for productive writing is a subject that is meaningful and interesting to the student. Development of writing skills should always go along the axis of complication, but not changing genres (description, narration, argumentation, etc.). One of the dangers that are posed by misuse of writing in the learning process is that people eventually lose the ability to think real, creating a widespread category of “wordy people” who cannot tell anymore when they talk about facts or argue about words. This fear of the author panned out to the full at the Soviet school.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2014-4-269-283