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Oleg Gazman1
  • 1 Center for Pedagogical Innovation, 8 Pogodinskaya St., Moscow, 119121, Russian Federation

Does a Democratic School Need any Education Program?

2013. No. 2. P. 7–14 [issue contents]

Oleg Gazman (1936–1996), Ped.D., Associate Member of the Russian Academy of Education, Head of Laboratory at Center for Pedagogical Innovation, Moscow, Russian Federation. Address: 8 Pogodinskaya St., Moscow, 119121, Russian Federation.

The article analyzes different interpretations of the notion “education program” since the 1950s, when the first program of the kind was developed in the Academy of Education of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and up until the mid-1990s.

The author points out that supervising the life of a group of children on the basis of pre-developed national programs is characteristic of totalitarian systems. He believes that in an open democratic society, a “government order for a human being” may only be based on some general principles and guidelines, while specific education goals and objectives should be established solely by the teachers involved.

To reach the critical educational goal of maximum assistance to self-development of a child as an individual, the author suggests distinguishing between the notions of social adjustment and individualization. Based on this theory, he singles out two relevant types of programs: a) education programs designed to introduce the rising generation to national, common cultural values and to behavior standards; b) programs designed to provide pedagogical assistance for personal growth by helping overcome obstacles on the way to unique and socially appropriate development.

An education program may only be created as a part of a general personality development program. A comprehensive curriculum-based education program should include teaching, education and pedagogical support in the scope provided by the school. Thus, even extracurricular programs created in schools as part of supplementary education (development) may include both education programs as such and assistance subprograms.

Citation: Gazman O. (2013) Nuzhna li programma vospitaniya demokraticheskoy shkole? [Does a Democratic School Need any Education Program?]. Voprosy obrazovaniya / Educational Studies Moscow, no2, pp. 7-14.
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