Ekaterina Zharova 1
  • 1 Petrovsky Bryansk State University, 14 Bezhitskaya St., Bryansk, 241036, Russian Federation

Course and Subject Field Systems of Biology Education in the Russian Empire

2012. No. 4. P. 238–248 [issue contents]

Ekaterina Zharova, Ph.D. in Biology, teaching assistant at the Zoology and Anatomy Department, Petrovsky Bryansk State University, Bryansk, Russian Federation.  Email: caty-zharr@yandex.ru
Address: 14 Bezhitskaya St., Bryansk, 241036, Russian Federation.

The paper describes evolution of biology education in Mathematical Physics faculties of Russian universities in the 19th and the early 20th centuries.

The most important phases of this evolution are defined: dividing Mathematical Physics faculties into mathematical and natural science departments by the end of the 1840s; introducing obligatory practical trainings in laboratories for natural science and medical students—after the University Statute of 1863 was adopted, enabling natural science students to specialize in chemistry, geology, geography, and various fields of biology. The most essential changes in educational process were made by the University Statute of 1884, which replaced conventional annual examinations with pass-fail exams on a semester basis.

The example of the Natural Science Department of Saint Petersburg University is used to show changes in educational process induced by transition from course system to subject field system in academic year 1906/1907. The newly-introduced subject field system almost didn’t affect the studies in natural sciences, as specialization within departments had already been practiced by faculties. Russian students could get quality biology education in either course or subject field system of the early 20th century as long as they had an opportunity of doing research in equipped laboratories at any university center. 

Citation: Zharova E. (2012) Kursovaya i predmetnaya sistemy biologicheskogo obrazovaniya Rossiyskoy imperii [Course and Subject Field Systems of Biology Education in the Russian Empire]. Voprosy obrazovaniya / Educational Studies Moscow, no4, pp. 238-248.