2012. no1

Educational Policies


Isak Frumin, Head of the New School expert group, editor of the report, D.Sc. in Pedadogy, Professor, Director of Research and Development at the Education Institute, National Research University —Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: ifroumin@hse.ru
Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation.

Anatoly Kasprzhak, Head of the New School expert group, editor of the report, Ped.D., Professor, Director of Center of Leadership Development in Education, Education Institute, National Research University —Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: agkasprzhak@hse.ru Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation.

Expert group authors: T. Abankina, A. Adamsky, V. Bolotov, N. Bysik, L. Dukhanina, S. Kosaretsky, T. Kovalyova, V. Kurennoy, Y. Lenskaya, A. Mayorov, M. Mokrinsky, A. Prokhorov, M. Pinskaya, I. Fedyukin.

The report was prepared by the New School expert group established in February 2011 by the order of the Prime Minister of the Russian Federation to develop proposals for the Russian government to adjust the Program of Long-Term Socioeconomic Development of the Russian Federation up to 2020 (‘The 2020 Strategies’) adopted in 2008 to the education area.

The authors analyze the existing system of general school education in Russia, taking into account the global development trends. A comparison of educational systems in Russia and OECD countries has proved that Russian general education conforms to modern requirements, which makes it possible to bring it to leading positions in the world and to make school one of the drivers of innovative development.

The report reviews a number of weak points in the system of education and socialization and the negative trends in traditionally efficient segments that jeopardize not only further development but also maintaining of the Russian school education at the current level. The authors analyze global challenges menacing quality and competitiveness of the Russian general education.

Methods of enhancing the quality and efficiency of the Russian educational system are proposed. Possible scenarios of medium-term development are described for the system of education and socialization. A list of actions to be taken in the nearest future and up to 2020 is developed.

Educational policy should focus not only on the formal system of schools and pre-school centers but also on the whole field of socialization and education of young generation. 


Michael Barber, Professor, Chief Adviser to the Secretary of State for Education on School Standards (1997–2001), chief education advisor at Pearson, leading Pearson’s worldwide programme of research into education policy and the impact of its products and services on learner outcomes, London, UK. Email: krdonnelly@pearson.com
Address: Institute for Public Policy Research, 4th Floor, 14 Buckingham Street, London WC2N 6DF, UK.

Martin Carnoy, Professor of education and economics at Stanford University. His areas of expertise also embrace international comparative studies. Director of Research and Development at the International Laboratory for Education Policy Analysis, Institute for Educational Studies, National Research University — Higher School of Economics (since 2011), Moscow, Russian Federation.

Alberto Rodriguez, Head of the Education Department of the World Bank in Europe and Central Asia. He deals with education reform and its effects on national competitiveness, has a great experience in researching education strategic development, management and financing. Manager of the World Bank’s educational projects implemented in Brazil, Columbia, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad and Tobago, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Lithuania and other countries.Former Deputy Minister of Education of Columbia.

Kao Jiaonan, coordinator of educational and training programs at the World Bank, former Head of Department in the Ministry of Education of the Republic of China.

Toby Linden, lead education specialistat the World Bank, manager of the World Bank’s educational program in India. As the head of the Roma Education Fund, he spent twelve years improving educational achievements of the poorest ethnic minority in Europe.

Andreas Schleicher, Head of the Indicators and Analysis Division, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, one of the leading European statisticians and researchers in the field of education, developer and coordinator of the PISA studies.

David Hawker, Professor at the College of Teachers in London, Director General of the Department for Children, Education, Lifelong Learning and Skills of the Welsh government (Great Britain), expert in evaluating the quality of education and children’s services and in system reformation. 

The authors assess efficiency of the scenarios for Russian education development proposed in the report. They recommend that further research should develop a clear strategic plan to implement the measures proposed, to perform a critical analysis of the existing resources required for successful transformations, to forecast political, social and financial consequences of each scenario. Evolution of the Russian educational system should be investigated and compared to international practices. Educational initiatives should be classified according to age groups. It is recommended to build education development strategies based on efficiency of different initiatives in pilot projects.

An analysis of academic performance among Russian school students has revealed a trend towards lower achievements. It is recommended to develop critical thinking and comprehension skills in school students. Academic progress of Russian school students differs dramatically depending on the socioeconomic status of their families, unlike in other countries. Therefore, special efforts should be made to increase academic performance of students from low income families in inefficient schools.

The paper presents some methods to eliminate disproportion in resource capacity of schools in different regions of Russia and to incentivize teachers of different age groups. We should observe how what school principals do affects the educational process in order to have a clear idea about the prerequisites for efficient development of the educational system. It is suggested to consider the international experience of applying the model of school autonomy and accountability. The authors also investigate how accessibility of preschool education influences the general education system.


Andreas Schleicher, Head of the Indicators and Analysis Division, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France. 
Email: andreas.schleicher@oecd.org  Address: 2, rue André Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France.

This is the first chapter of the OECD report. International experience is used to identify the methods to attract qualified graduates into the teaching force and to ensure high-quality initial teacher education.

Different approaches towards recruitment are described. Special emphasis is placed on the comprehensive approach to identifying and nurturing teaching talent in young people from secondary school graduating classes developed in Singapore.

The author determines both financial incentives proposed by educational systems in different countries to attract qualified graduates into the teaching force and policies seeking to improve the profession’s general status and competitive position in the job market. Building stronger links between the schools and the community can help to enhance the status of teaching.

It is discussed how to supply attractive forms of employment that balance flexibility with job security and grant sufficient authority for schools to manage and deploy their human resources. The author provides the example of Finland where teachers are engaged in education reform. It is explained why top-down initiatives alone are insufficient to achieve deep and lasting changes in practice.

Well-structured and well-resourced selection processes and programs of induction that ensure that the best candidates get the available jobs are critical. The author specifies recruitment measures to bring in teachers from a wider range of backgrounds.

Methods to better ensure high-quality initial teacher education in different countries are identified.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2012-1-74-92

Theoretical and Applied Research


Lidiya Okolskaya, Ph.D. in Sociology, senior researcher in the Sector for Research in Personality, Sociology Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, first prize winner in Pinsky Awards Education Research Competition (2011). Email: okoli@yandex.ru Address: Bld. 5, 24/35 Krzhizhanovskogo St., Moscow, 117218, Russian Federation.

The article presents results of content analysis of high school textbooks on social and human sciences. The author uses Schwartz’s value typology consisting of two value axes, ‘conservation vs. openness to change’ and ‘self-enhancement vs. self-transcendence’, to review the value content of the Russian educational program. She also breaks school subjects into value categories, describes these categories, and compares value priorities of learning programs to the results of mass questionnaires on the values of Russians. Value content of textbooks has been analyzed for compliance to declared values of school subjects approved in educational standards.

It turns out that history and social science classes teach students models of depersonalized government-citizen interaction. The content analysis shows that, despite the goal of developing conservation values stipulated in educational standards, history classes are mostly focused on self-enhancement values, especially those of power and achievement. The most expressed conservation value is security, which is conveyed through the image of the State as a defender.

Social science classes builds a similar perfect identity based on interaction with the State. However, unlike in the history classes paradigm, the perfect individual here is a passive receiver of goods and services, such as security, order, and various freedoms.

Modernist attitudes stem from literature classes focused on novelty and independence while at the same time preserving traditions. Literature textbooks are dominated by the value of benevolence. The value hierarchy built by literature classes is very likely to play a huge role in socializing the upcoming Russian generation.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2012-1-93-125


Ilya Prakhov, junior researcher at the International Laboratory for Institutional Analysis of Economic Reforms, Center for Institutional Studies, lecturer in the Subdepartment of Institutional Economics, National Research University — Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: ipra@inbox.ru 

Mariya Yudkevich, Ph.D. in Economics, Director of the Center for Institutional Studies, Head of the International Laboratory for Institutional Analysis of Economic Reforms, Center for Institutional Studies, National Research University — Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation.
Email: yudkevich@hse.ru 

The paper investigates into the effect of family income on performance in the Unified State Exam (USE), on the choice of university, and on the strategies of preparing for entrance exams. The study is based on a survey conducted in autumn 2010 among first-year university students and their parents in sixteen major Russian cities.

Family income has proved to have a positive effect on performance in major USE subjects. This relationship remains statistically significant even for students who had similar academic achievements before starting to prepare for entrance exams, i.e. just after the 9th grade. High school graduates ultimately differ in their academic progress, as their families have different financial resources to invest in additional preparation for entrance exams.

The average passing score is used to describe universities admitting candidates with similar USE points but different family incomes. Candidates from higher income families with satisfactory and good USE results manage their points more efficiently than candidates with the same results from lower income families.

The revealed positive effect of family income on academic achievements of high school graduates, on the strategies of preparing for entrance exams, and on the quality of higher education programs means that establishment of USE as a unified examination, or standardized testing, did not provide equal access to higher education for different categories of high school graduates. 

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2012-1-126-147


Olga Kirillova, Eng.D., Head of the Division of Library and Information Services, All-Russian Institute of Scientific and Technical Information, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: ovk@viniti.ru
Address: 20 Usiyevicha St., Moscow, 125190, Russian Federation.

Nataliya Soloshenko, Ped.D., Principal Manager at All-Russian Institute of Scientific and Technical Information, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: solns@viniti.ru
Address: 20 Usiyevicha St., Moscow, 125190, Russian Federation.

Analyzing biometric indicators, namely publication activity of scientists and their international citation index, the authors explore the level of science development in Russia for the last decade (2001-2010) as compared to Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, and Croatia. The paper reveals the reasons for changes in these indicators in different countries, analyzes the relationship between research and development expenditure (% GDP) and publication activity of scientists.
No direct influence of R&D spending on publication activity and science citation index has been discovered. The authors have identified the countries with the most stable indicators of scientific productivity and with the highest citation indexes (Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland). A comparative analysis has shown that some indicators (average citation index, average impact factor of academic journals, etc.) are significantly lower in Russia than in the leading Eastern European countries. This is mostly because Russian papers on resourceful topics are poorly represented in international journals, and Russian journals are poorly indexed in analytical systems (Scopus, Web of Science).
Results of the study allow to reveal the strengths of research studies in Eastern Europe and to develop recommendations so as to improve the quality of information received by Russia’ largest information center, the All-Russian Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The authors have also defined prospects for studying research productivity in different countries.


Daniil Aleksandrov, Ph.D. in Biology, Professor, Head of the Sociology of Education and Science Laboratory, National Research University — Higher School of Economics — St. Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation.  Email: d_alexandrov@hse.spb.ru 

Vlada Baranova, Ph.D. in History, research fellow at the Sociology of Education and Science Laboratory, National Research University — Higher School of Economics — St. Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation.  Email: vbaranova@hse.spb.ru 

Valeriya Ivanyushina, Ph.D. in Biology, leading researcher at the Sociology of Education and Science Laboratory, National Research University — Higher School of Economics — St. Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation.  Email: ivaniushina@hse.spb.ru 

The study represents results of the first large-scale survey in Russia focused on adaptation of immigrant children to Russian schools. Analysis of empirical data is used to discuss ethnic and social differentiation of schools, interaction between parents and schools, attitude of parents towards students of different ethnicity, and interethnic communication among students.

It has been found out that children are distributed across schools according to their social status rather than to their ethnicity. The authors confirm the American sociologist theory of positive immigrant selection and first-generation immigrant optimism. The same effects in Russia are explained by the late beginning of mass immigration, which makes them likely to vanish in the next generation.
Using multilevel regression models, the authors demonstrate how migration status and ethnicity influence academic performance. Children from minority immigrant families have proved to be highly motivated, while their academic achievements are as good as those of their native classmates, and aspirations for higher education are much the same in both ethnic minority and majority students. An analysis of social links in schools has revealed no discrimination against ethnic minority students, despite nationalist trends in the Russian society. 

The authors have also determined the prospects of this research in terms of long-term social projections.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2012-1-176-199



Milagros Nores, Assistant Research Professor, National Institute for Early Education Research, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey (NJ, United States). Email: mnores@nieer.org Address: 57 US Highway 1, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8554, United States.

W. Steven Barnett, Board of Governors Professor and Director of the National Institute for Early Education Research, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey (NJ, United States). Email: wbarnet@rci.rutgers.edu Address: 57 US Highway 1, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8554, United States.

This paper uses a meta-analysis to review the evidence on the benefits of early childhood interventions. The authors also analyze how the revealed effects are correlated with characteristics of the corrective measures and with the target audience.

A total of 38 contrasts of 30 interventions in 23 countries were analyzed. The paper focuses on studies applying a quasi-experimental or random assignment. Studies were coded according to: the type of intervention (cash transfer, nutritional, educational or mixed); sample size; study design and duration; country; target group (infants, prekindergarten); subpopulations of interventions; and dosage of intervention. Cohen’s D effect sizes were calculated for four outcomes: cognitive gains; behavioral change; health gains; and amount of schooling.

A moderate progress has been revealed in each of the outcomes. The benefits are sustained over time. Interventions that have an educational or mixed (educational and stimulation, or care) component evidenced the largest cognitive effects, as compared to cash infusions or nutrition-specific interventions. We find children from different context and countries receive substantial cognitive, behavioral, health and schooling benefits from early childhood interventions, unlike children whose development is not supported or promoted. Direct care and education appear to be the most efficient interventions, especially for development of cognitive skills in early childhood.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2012-1-200-228


Marina Kirina, advisor at the Directorate for Design and Analytical Activities, Ministry of Education and Science of Samara Oblast, Samara, Russian Federation, award winner in Pinsky Awards Education Research Competition (2011). Email: kirinam@bk.ru Address: 38/16, A. Tolstogo St., Samara, 443099, Russian Federation.

The author argues that it is necessary to introduce performance assessment of teachers and school administrators based on the dynamics of individual student achievements. A study which was carried out in Samara region in 2009 confirmed that individual results of the Unified State Exam (11th grade) are closely related to results of the State Final Examination (9th grade). The author proposes a method of assessing the dynamics of individual academic progress. The method consists in comparing the percentage results (%) each student gets in each discipline in SFE and USE.
Educational institutions often owe their positive image to high initial abilities of students promoted to the 10th grade. That is to say, the existing charts of general schools based exclusively on USE results but ignoring students’ achievements before the 10th grade do not reflect the real achievements schools make in educational activities. Maximum efficiency is achieved when schools demonstrate high USE results after getting low average points in SFE two years earlier.
Having revealed that students with higher SFE points make less progress than those with lower SFE points, the author concludes that modern school has a goal of bringing all students to the “medium” level, thus providing progress only for those who are poorly prepared. The author suggests that if teachers and school administrators focus on individual dynamics indicators, academic performance of graduates will not get lower than in the 9th grade.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2012-1-229-245

Education Statistics and Sociology


Based on the data obtained by the Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University — Higher School of Economics.

Olga Ozerova , Head of the Department for Statistics of Education, Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University — Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: oozerova@hse.ru
Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation.

Varvara Kobyshcha, Master’s degree student at National Research University — Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: ko.varvara@gmail.com
Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation.

The article describes the situation with part-time higher vocational education in Russia and demonstrates changes in part-time student population. An analysis of enrolment rates allows to predict that reduction in the number of part-time students that started in 2010 is likely to progress. In general, changes in part-time education are quite consistent with the overall trend towards lower enrolment rates. It is curious that the number of part-time students began to reduce a few years ago. Before that, it had been growing, despite continuously decreasing full-time and overall enrolment rates. A comparison of part-time enrolment rates to those of part-time student graduation has shown that the latter have been consistently growing.

The authors have revealed how the number of part-time students is determined by changes in the private vocational education system. In addition to the overall trend, the number of part-time students had reduced by the 2010-2011 academic year due to elimination of unlicensed private education institutions, which led to a cut-down in part-time places.

The newly introduced forms of higher education (Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees) are poorly correlated with part-time education at the moment, especially in national and municipal educational institutions. Fields of study and professions have been classified according to the proportion of part-time students in the total student population. Finally, gender- and age-related characteristics of part-time students have been described.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2012-1-246-256


Yana Roshchina, Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor, leading researcher at the Center for Longitudinal Studies, National Research University — Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: yroshchina@mail.ru
Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation. 

The author evaluates how different types of family capital, individual characteristics of young people, and the type of school influence on educational opportunities for 9th grade school students, including their aspirations for higher education. The empirical basis is the first phase of the longitudinal project ‘Monitoring educational and employment trajectories of school and higher education institution graduates’ launched by NRU HSE in 2010 to explore educational and professional trajectories of Russian high school students throughout several years.
Family capital has turned out to be interrelated with the type of school attended by children. It has been revealed that students attending specialized schools and gymnasiums come from families with largest family capitals. Inequality in financial resources of families is exacerbated by territorial differences in educational opportunities.
In general, family capital factors affect educational opportunities of school students, but their already existing achievements and investments in human capital are affected more than educational aspirations. The latter are rather determined by the type of school, academic progress, extra-curricular activities, and the child’s personal traits and efforts.
The fact that family capital factors do not influence educational aspirations significantly is in conflict with a number of earlier studies. The contradiction is supposed to be related with high uncertainty of educational aspirations in 9th grade students.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2012-1-257-277

History of Education


Yuri Guinzburg,teacher in the Department of Financial Law, National Research University — Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation, award winner in the in the 2011 Young Scientists Research Paper Competition. Email: bolingbrok@rambler.ru
Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation

Tatyana Ilyina, teaching assistantat the Constitutional and Administrative Law Department, Kursk State University, Kursk, Russian Federation, award winner of the 2011 Young Scientists Research Paper Competition. Email: tanayunik@rambler.ru
Address: 33 Radishcheva St., Kursk, 305000, Russian Federation. 

The study describes the process of differentiating between learning programs in Russian faculties of law of the 19th century. It also describes major educational models implemented in faculties of law of the pre-revolutionary Russia. While analyzing the law studies differentiation plans, the authors reveal the main reasons for this differentiation. These are: a) the need to eliminate defects of the fundamental model of legal education, and b) the need to provide a candidate pool not only for judicial authorities but also for the government system.
The lack of professors is believed to be one of the key factors of unsuccessful attempts to introduce differentiation. As a result, differentiation of disciplines among different faculty departments was distorted, and some disciplines were even discarded from learning schedules. All of this brought discredit on the very concept of differentiation. Students favored the governmental department much less than the legal one, as the latter promised broader career opportunities. Attempts to divide law faculties into departments owed their failure to the absence of a smooth professional training mechanism in the Russian Empire. As graduates from different departments did not differ in their skills, specialists were not distributed among judiciary authorities and the government system in compliance with qualifications they had acquired, which augmented the risk of employing incompetent people. 
The practices proposed by Moscow University in the early 19th century have been adopted by modern legal education, which implies differentiation at the second stage of the two-stage educational system.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2012-1-278-290

Reflections on…


Vladimir Blinov, D.Sc. in Pedagogy, Professor in the Chair of Pedagogics, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russian Federation, award winner in Pinsky Awards Education Research Competition (2010). Email: Endless111@yandex.ru
Address: Bld. 1, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation.

Marina Artamonova, Ph.D. in Sociology, leading researcher at Federal Institute for Education Development under the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russian Federation, award winner in Pinsky Awards Education Research Competition (2010). Email: mvartamonova@mail.ru
Address: Bld. 1, 9 Chernyakhovskogo St., Moscow, 129319, Russian Federation.

This is an analysis of changes in the Russian vocational education system after the educational standard was legally updated in 2011. Vocational education is regarded as an investment in human capital. As the competency building approach puts it, efficiency of education is achieved when educational results can satisfy the economic needs.

The authors discuss the possibility of efficient integration of the educational system into the modern economic system. They also describe changes in education required for such integration and factors that prevent it. Priority measures to eliminate the latter are determined.

Commissioning of educational services has changed quite a lot for the last two decades. Governmental and social control over the ultimate educational results has been getting progressively stricter. New educational programs have been emerging at the intersection of higher and secondary education. Education is believed to be an instrument of social stratification. The authors reveal the major trends in its development, which are about dividing educational programs into traditional and exclusively vocational, and about creating programs to provide qualified contractors. BAS programs have some distinct advantages, as they satisfy the demands of all educational market players — the government, the society, the candidates, and their parents. A new type of university is about to emerge — the elite university designed for the most talented students from affluent families.

Rendering educational services comfortable for all players and customers of the process is claimed to be the paramount condition and criterion of education quality and the top priority goal of education modernization.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2012-1-291-308