2009. no4

Educational Policies




A round table dedicated to the appearance of E.F. Saburov’s book «School and freedom» (2006) Discussed are issues in organization and reorganization of school, as a starting point in the life of everybody. In particular, scrutinized is the ability of humanities teaching to help forming a liberal worldview.


Translated from English


The article considers the essence of the notion of life-long learning. It is shown that effective incorporation of universities into the system of the «life-long learning» requires thorough institutional reforms: from changes in the university organization to educating a new type of teachers. Analyzed are principal difficulties related to the practical implementation of the reform.

Theoretical and Applied Research


Scrutinized is the structure of notions of the idea and mission of a university, analyzed is the crisis of the classical models of university in the context of the transition from the industrialism to the computerized era. Argued for is the necessity for a modern university for selfdetermination. Considered are the views of modern higher education researchers on the idea of university. The author introduces sociocultural reasons for the formulation of the mission of a modern university and provides arguments for the dependence of structural characteristics of a university on its mission.


Average grades of alumni of different Italian state universities vary significantly. Remarkably, graduates of universities with higher average grade do not perform better at the job market, moreover they sometimes lose to graduates of universities with a lower average grade. The difference in final grades reflect in particular difference in standards of academic achievement used by different universities. Consequently, schemes of university financing based on students’ grades do not ensure that universities providing better quality education receive preferential support. This conclusion is pertinent for the Italian system, under which the distribution of budget funds among universities depends on the number of exams successfully passed by students.


In 1990s, many Russian government bodies founded universities of their own. A case study of the Russian State Tax Academy is used to examine the purposes of creating of such universities and outcomes of their functioning. The article uses materials of extensive interviews conducted in 2003–2009 with graduates of the Academy and tax authority employees who sent their children to the academy. It is shown that government body universities create a higher risk of low education quality. Discussed are ways to reform these institutions of higher learning.


Problems of childhood and education in the North are considered in the framework of the methodology of the international project ‘Children of the Arctic’ run by four countries: Finland, Norway, Russia, and Sweden. The central category of the project, the one that unifies the scientific interests of the partner countries if the psychosocial well-being with its similarities and differences across these countries. Presented is a philosophic and socio-pedagogic analysis of a child’s inner world. The authors draw the data from a survey of psychosocial well-being of the population of Murmansk region.


The article presents results of a sociological study based on a 2007 survey of 280 graduates of the Management Faculty of the HSE (years of graduation from 1999 until 2006). Analyzed are factors of a career success of managers among the graduates. A particular attention is given to the indicators of education quality and the appropriateness of their current jobs with respect to the training they received. Described are segments of the Russian business environment that, for career promotion, are mostly guided by clan considerations or, on the contrary, by professional ones. The second pat of the article deals with the analysis of the respondents’ opinions on the content of courses at the Business faculty. The authors focus their attention at the relation of basic and applied knowledge in the education structure and their role in the graduates’ career development.



A new remuneration system for teachers is introduced in the regions that implement complex projects of education modernization. Considered are its core principles, like payment for quality and payfor-performance. The authors investigate the dynamics of salaries from the regional perspective as compared to the subsistence minimum and the average salary. It is shown that the new system changes the social status of teachers and their motivation. It supports leaders and helps introducing competition in education. Moreover, it allows to decrease the learning load for students and the teaching load for teachers, thus insuring the growth of education quality and the attention to students’ health. It facilitates the external evaluation of school performance, helps managers to acquire new managing technology and fosters constructive dialogue with the local community, students’ parents and teacher trade unions.


The article deals with innovative approaches to continuous skill enhancement of teachers and managers on the level of a district of a large city. Described is a model of functioning of the district methodological service that bases on network interactions. Depicted are forms of organization of teacher professional communities and ways to create incentives for teachers to increase their skills.


In the last two decades, Russian universities function in a new socioeconomic environment. Increase of competition due to a rapid growth of the number of universities, decreased number of prospective students, fast changes in the external and internal environment, and changes in the behavior of consumers of education services require universities to use new tools for the increase of their viability at the education service market. The article systematizes the factors that influence the viability of universities in free market environment; expectations of education services consumers are analyzed. Described is a marketing management method based model of viability of a university, and a method to estimate the viability.

Education Statistics and Sociology


Analyzed is a corpus of foreign journals on social sciences and humanities where Russian researchers publish their papers, and the topics of the papers. The journals are listed in the WoS database. The authors restrict themselves to two social disciplines (economics and sociology) and two disciplines in humanities (history and philosophy). The authors track certain quantitative characteristics of the analyzed papers, namely, the number of published articles, the dynamics of publishing in 1993–2008, as well as certain qualitative parameters, including the distribution across types of journals.


Considered is the situation on the Russian job market before the onset of the economic crisis in 2008. The analysis bases on the results of sample surveys of employers performed for a number of years by the Levada center. The surveys have been ordered by the HSE in the framework of the Education Economic Monitoring program. It is shown that despite the claims of managers about the workforce shortages in the pre-crisis period, a majority of employers do not consider it relevant to take measures for rational personnel management, and human resources remain underestimated as compared to technological and financial resources. The widespread complaints on the quality of professional training do not stimulate employers to increase the effort to improve the system of professional training.

History of Education


The second half of the 19th century in Russia saw a number of socioeconomic changes. Among those, an important place was occupied by transformation of major estates, first and foremost the nobility. Due to the ideological polarization of the nobility, there emerged a whole spectrum of views on the development of the Russian education. It remained common for all nobility to seek the classical education. The article considers the principal stages of formation of the nobility in Russia and attempts to determine specific education priorities of various groups of the Russian nobility in the last quarter of the 19 th and early 20th century.

Book Reviews and Survey Articles

Key skills in Western research

This is a review of modern Western publications on skill-oriented education. The relevance of the topic is due to the ongoing development of the Russian education model, and of the new generation of standards for the secondary school.


Considered are successes and failures of the US educational policies in the Middle East in 1940–2000. The main purpose of these policies was to create socioprofessional groups loyal to the US and to foster a positive image of the US in this region. American education reforms and training programs for the military during the Cold War in 1940–1980 s contributed to the surge of the anti-American feelings in the region in 1990s. The current projects, educating the political elites and leaders of pro-democratic parties, providing wider access to education for women, launching a series of reforms in schools and universities, do not contribute to introducing democracy in the region and to fostering the positive image of the USA.

Reflections on…


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