2007. no3

Educational Policies


Governments of numerous countries are becoming aware of the need for their best university to be in the vanguard of global intellectual and scientific development. This article suggests several ideas that might serve as landmarks to ensure the viability of Russian universities globally. One of these ideas is to establish so"called flagship universities. The authors formulate an operational definition of a leading world university, and discuss possible strategies to create such a university. The article discusses the specific steps needed in Russia in order to attract the best students and faculty, to ensure the adequate financing of higher education, and also discusses the optimal management schemes.


The article evaluates the results of the transformation of the Russian higher education system in the 1990s and considers the ongoing processes that are characteristic of the system’s present development. The authors argue that institutional transformations in this sphere should be given a higher priority than increases in the government funding of colleges. The reasons for why a major part of the education community mistrust reforms are analyzed.


The article is based on a survey of higher education institutions in Kazakhstan conducted by a group of experts from the Organization for Economic Co"operation and Development and the World Bank. The authors examine the strategies for mobilizing resources that the government can employ in order to compensate for the low level of education funding: stimulation of the private higher education system, participation in the financing of education, privatization of state"owned universities. The grant (voucher) system of education funding that is being used in Kazakhstan is discussed in detail.

Theoretical and Applied Research


The authors suggest a novel method for measuring how well universities are adhering to the parameters of the Bologna process. The importance of such techniques is due to the fact that by 2010, Russia has to complete reforms of the higher education system in accordance to with the Bologna declaration. The article briefly summarizes the relevant components of the Bologna process. The general approach and instruments for evaluating the activity of universities are described. The results of a survey of 20 well"known Russian universities are presented. In conclusion, the authors use a specially designed index to estimate the overall correspondence of the Russian higher education system to the parameters of the Bologna process.


Translated from English by E. Pokatovich


The article describes the foundations of education theory based on the philosophic anthropological ideas of L.S. Vygotsky, more precisely, on his theory of search. The authors introduce the notion of an educational objective as a basic notion in anthropology and the pedagogy of self" determination: An educational objective prompts an overt action from a subject. In this connection, the authors develop the idea of practical thinking as the thinking that embodies a certain cultural historical practice. Considerable attention is paid to the notions of human potential, possibility and anthropopractice. In their conclusion, the authors offer a modern concept of the structure of the content of education from the viewpoint of the education objective.



The article deals with the problems of restructuring state"funded higher education institutions. The authors argue for the necessity to take into account the economic potential of a college when changing its status to that of an autonomous institution. To evaluate this characteristic, the authors suggest using both internal indicators such as the condition of the facilities and the educational and financial activities of colleges that answer to the Federal Agency of Education, and external indicators such as the financial capacities of the local population. The results of the analysis are used to order colleges according to their economic potential. This ranking can be used to formulate novel approaches to the autonomization of colleges.


What is the connection between the external behavior of a college and its internal structure? This question is highly relevant because of the ongoing diversification of funding in Russian colleges: it is necessary to understand this connection in order to successfully manage colleges and to form their identities. To answer this question, the author uses two theoretical approaches: the resource"dependence approach and the new institutionalism. Both approaches assume a high significance of institutional surroundings in explaining the changes in organizations. A case study comparing state"owned technological, pedagogical, and law & economics colleges has been conducted in order to discover the differences between these populations of colleges. The study uses the following parameters: transparency for the consumer, investment policies towards teachers, and decision making practices.

Education Statistics and Sociology


The article investigates the connection between family resources and the choice of particular educational trajectories. The authors show that the education level of a family serves as a stimulus for adults and children. The principle incentives for acquiring a higher education increasingly include the possibility of getting a lucrative job, learning a profession in demand, and good career possibilities. The analysis can be used to develop a typology of households that reproduce their social capital in the resource potential of future generations, and to compare the education of children from households of different types. It shows that higher education functions as a social elevator, allowing the transition of only a part of children from low income households to a higher social status.

History of Education



Book Reviews and Survey Articles