2007. no1

Educational Policies

A much-needed Project

To achieve the efficient functioning of the education system, it is necessary to manage educational resources in such a way that the results of the education system should meet the demands of the country and region development, satisfy the interests of students, parents, and employers, etc. Experience shows that in order to achieve a qualitatively higher level of efficiency, it is necessary to introduce major changes into the education system. The project Reform of Education System suggested concrete steps to be taken in this direction. Evaluating the concrete outcomes of the project, it is important to establish whether the project has succeeded in becoming a model of a major reform of Russian education. It is also necessary to determine whether the offered model has proved itself to be efficient.


Translated from English by E. Froumina



Theoretical and Applied Research


The article discusses the concept of a business-oriented university, i.e. an institution that is able to cope with the challenges of modern higher education created by the transition to a ?knowledge society?. A definition of a business-oriented university is given, and a framework is suggested for estimating the level of business activity of a university and for conducting strategic planning of the university’s activity. The role of business-oriented universities in industrial clusters is shown, and the importance of social networks of alumni in the development of business- oriented universities is demonstrated.


Introduction to Bray M. Private Supplementary Tutoring: Comparative Perspectives on Patterns and Implications.


Translated from English by E. Pokatovich.

Content of Education


The article analyzes the skill standards of engineering graduates and professional engineers formulated by various international bodies (Washington Accord, Engineers Mobility Forum, Federation Europeenne d'Associations Nationales d'Ingenieurs, European Network for Accreditation of Engineering Education). It considers the specific features of the ?American? and the ?Bolognese? models of an engineer, and discusses which of them should be taken in consideration for creating the new Federal Educational Standards for the training of engineers and technicians in Russian colleges.


Pedagogical research has long been a part of the curriculum of education students. The article analyzes its history during the 20th century. The author determines several interdependent functions of pedagogical research (viz., education, personality development, social competence development, stimulation) and analyzes the dynamics of implementation of these functions in the course of professional training. The analysis shows that the general directions of pedagogical research changed together with the changes of general pedagogical concepts: from the anthropological-humanistic paradigm of the beginning of the century to the ideological and technocratic in the middle of the century and back to the personality oriented humanistic one at the end of the century.



A commentary to the interview with V.F. Ovchinnikov and A.K. Kovaljee.



Both Russian and Western experience shows that higher education and research, in particular fundamental research, cannot efficiently develop without integration and close interaction with the real sector of the economy. The article analyzes certain key problems and perspectives of the realization of efficient forms and mechanisms of integration of education and research in Russia. The steps taken in this direction by the state are discussed.


The article describes the properties and components of student loans, and analyzes the role of the state as a guarantor of student loans under information asymmetry. Different ways of providing loans as well as types and elements of student loans are described. Western (American, Swedish, German, Australian) practices as well as the practice of NIS countries are presented. The second part of the article constructs a model of a contract for student loans with incentives. Based on the theory of agent relations, a way to decrease the risk of defaults on the loan is suggested. The key points are granting the student a right to delayed payments and a grace period. The model provides for the possibility of the bank to changing the interest rate depending on the academic achievements of the student.


Introduction to a series of articles.


The article analyzes the restructuring of the education network in Karelia. It describes the advanced models of restructuring that were used. It presents in detail the strategy employed in the republic, including the following:the integration of 18 individual municipal projects of new education network construction based on the use of general principles of strategic planning;the extensive use of the resource base provided by regional government and communal bodies;the use of new management techniques and joint management methods by government and community bodies;modernization of the training of educators and managers;decentralization of management.It is shown in the article that the success of the restructurization of education in Karelia is due to the in-depth analysis of the social and economic development based on detailed social, geographic and demographic surveys.


The article considers the spacing of education networks under the conditions of demographic shrinking and negative tendencies in populationdistribution. A successful restructuring of education institutions necessitates the creation of integrated education structures that should also include other social, cultural, and sport organizations.The article argues that in order to increase the accessibility of quality state and municipal social-cultural services it is necessary to take the following steps:To introduce the node-based model of a network, instead of the extant hierarchical one;To organize student transportation to education institutions;To introduce local network management instead of centralized management;To introduce integrated institutions.To provide an optimal legal basis for the integration of educational and social-cultural resources, a Federal Law On the Integrated State or Municipal Social Institution should be adopted in order to introduce the necessary regulations.


The article describes the results of a federal experiment in restructuring rural school networks. It was carried out in 2002—2004 at 156 rural schools in 18 federal subjects of the Russian Federation. More than 40 thousand students and 7.5 thousand teachers were involved. The article generalizes the experience of alternative models of the basic (central) school with a network of branches, a perambulating laboratory, a socialcultural complex, a resource center, a specialized rural school, and an association of education institutions of different levels. The economic efficiency of alternative models for rural schools, the quality of education and academic achievements of students in the experimental regions are analyzed. The author presents suggestions on taking into account the demographic and social-economic specifics while restructuring rural school networks. Particular attention is given to the forms of co-operation and network interaction between education institutions and sport organizations, social-cultural bodies and enterprises. The technology of social partnership is used to promote cooperation and integration of resources.


The article considers the results of a complex project on restructuring of general education networks in the Chuvash Republic. Special attention is given to the evaluation of the accessibility of quality education independent of place of residence. Analyzed are the models introduced in the republic, including basic central schools, social-cultural complexes, resource centers, etc. It is noted that school buses provide more than just transportation to school. Rural students are now taking a much more active part in regional competitions and olympiads. The school bus has enlarged the social horizon: it has made school trips to exhibitions, concerts, etc. possible. The article provides a comparison of academic achievements of urban and rural students based on the results of the Unified State Tests and presents data from opinion polls conducted by the Levada Center in the course of the restructuring project.



The Panel on the National Intellectual Potential of the Public Chamber, a Meeting of February 20 2007, Moscow).

Education Statistics and Sociology

Education Payoff in Transition Economy Countries

The differences in the education payoff reflect the depth of economical reforms in a country and the institutional specifics of the labor market. The last decade saw major changes in the social policy in transitional economy countries, but certain labor market phenomena (for instance, the decrease of the education payoff) are still puzzling for both politicians and experts. We study the changes in the education payoff in from the late 90-s to the early 2000-s. We use the results of household surveys in nine transitional economy countries: Belarus, Bulgaria, Georgia, Hungary, Moldavia, Poland, Romania, Russia, and Tadjikistan.

Evaluating Education Payoff in Russia

Degrees in Technology, Law or Economics are Better Rewarded by the Market (from ?Beyond Transition?).


The object of the study is regional and municipal models of education policy. The newly legislated Law on the General Principles of Organization of Local Self-Government in the Russian Federation requires the reorganization of financing of the education system; this is what makes the present study relevant. The authors use empirical data collected in 4 Russian regions (the Yaroslavl, Tver, Samara regions, and the Chuvash Republic). Detailed interviews with a representative of the Education Department and from 4 to 6 managers of municipal education departments were conducted in each region. In addition, from 5 to 6 secondary school managers in each municipal district also filled in a questionnaire. The analysis of the data showed the existence of 3 models of education policy in the regions: a liberal policy, a social policy, and a centralized policy. They are characterized by different degrees of reliance on economic and administrative mechanisms.


S.P. Shevyrev


First two lectures.



The problems of humanities education are gaining national status in modern Russia. By refusing to solve them, we deprive ourselves of the future. Although many of those who are to govern the state in future years prefer to study economics and law, the primary component of humanities training should consist of literature and history. However, literature classes are conducted in accordance with outdated Soviet methods, and history textbooks are written by authors who are unaware of Russian historical thought. The author suggests a holistic approach to overcome this crisis.

Book Reviews and Survey Articles



Translated from English by I. Friedman