2005. no2

Educational Policies



The paper considers the problem of dividing responsibilities in the educational sphere (including that of government guarantees such as the right to education) between the federal and the regional levels of administration. The problems under consideration appeared as a result of Federal Law 122, signed August 22, 2004, and also because of planned reforms in education, foremost of all those described in The priority directions in the development of the educational system in the Russian Federation. The author suggests that the modernization policies in education require profound revision: the administrative component should be decreased, and the social component should be increased.


An interview with Lazar Fuchsson, vice-director of the Administration of the Kaliningrad Region, head of the Central Department for Education and Science, and Galina Chernova, the Minister of Education of the Chuvash Republic.
Prepared by Boris Startsev.


The development of modern higher education systems is affected by three factors, which may be considered to be global as they are characteristic not only for all 30-members of OECD (The Organization of the Economical Co-operation and Development), but for the partner countries of OECD as well:- the rise in the level of education of the general population;- the internationalization of the education market;the active development of self-governance in higher education institutions, or the «autonomization» of education.These factors determine the main interdependent trends in the government policies in higher education in the OECD countries:- increasing the accessibility of higher education- insuring the quality of education- increasing the financial efficiency in the higher education sector.


Theoretical and Applied Research


Translated from the English by S.R. Filonovich.



The paper considers a model that allows a university to choose the degree of centralization in administration to fit their needs. It also considers some ways in which to diminish the possible negative impact caused by the choice of degree of centralization. These methods were proved to be effective in the practice of Russian institutions of higher education. The work was carried out in the framework of the project Analysis and Improvement of the Management Mechanism of Higher Education Institutions that was conducted in 2004 by the Department of Management at the Saint-Petersburg University in co-operation with experts from SU-HSE (The State University — High School of Economics). The research is based on the investigation of six stable and successfully developing institutes. The project was funded by the Russian Ministry of Education and by the Russian Ministry of Economical Development and Trade.


The article discusses which system of basic education is appropriate for Russia today. It analyzes the changes that substantially influenced the adequacy of the social service network given the structure and dynamics of the population distribution. The principal models of social service networks are characterized, namely, the nuclear, the node, the cell and the stepped models,. The degree with which social networks can be applied to the trends of the population distribution in the Russian regions is investigated, and compared to other countries. The changes in the institutional connections between standard general education and its social surroundings are generalized.


Starting from 2005, the responsibilities for funding primary and secondary professional training are now at the regional level, rather than at the federal level. What are the possible consequences of this measure? The authors analyze the experience of 16 federal regions that financed primary professional training (PPT) for approximately 10 years. This analysis has made it possible to arrive at certain conclusions about this process and to arrive at a preliminary estimate of how such a change may affect primary and secondary professional training. The article presents a comparative analysis of the situation in primary professional training in regions where PPT institutions were funded out of the federal or regional budgets. The analysis uses 10 parameters that characterize the scale of the PPT system, its results, its human and material resources, the fulfillment of social functions.


Translated from English by M. Semenova


A commentary to N. Barr’s paper, by A.A. Panova, M.M. Yudkevich

Content of Education


The article considers the relation between the educational and developmental components in the teaching of History. It stresses the important role that this discipline plays in the general upbringing. The paper makes the point that it is impermissible to oppose the goals of transmitting knowledge and of forming skills, or to over-indulge in the theoretical problems in the school education. As History plays a leading role in the teaching of social sciences, it is necessary to include courses in Civics and Sociology in the course in History. The author notes the problems with the present concentric system adopted in the school course in history, and suggests returning to the old linear one, which provides more profound and solid knowledge. History textbooks should be based on scientific methods and provide extracurricular information, and their diversity should be preserved.


The article presents the problem of an urgent re-orientation in the school course in History. Its necessity is caused by four principal reasons: the necessity to preserve the integrity and unity of the country, the new multi-confessional structure of modern society, permanent mass migrations, and the increase in social tension and in inter-ethnic hostility. The skills to be acquired in the History class are adaptation to cultural diversity, acceptance of such diversity as of a norm, and not as something unusual, constructive dialogue with those who think differently, and development of tolerance.


The article deals with the modern problems in teaching History. Principal problems are: determining the educational standard, creating schools with an emphasis on history, developing the Unified State Exam in history, writing textbooks, and improving the teaching methodology. What are the standards created for, and at whom is it oriented? What should the contents of the course in history be? What are the main purposes of the schools with an emphasis on history, which materials and textbooks are used in them, what optional courses are offered? Which should be first: the Unified State Exam or the specialized school, and what are the interconnections between them? Is it possible to write an ideal school textbook in History?




The article considers problems of competition of educational programs in higher professional training within the experiment with funding colleges using State Personal Vouchers (SPV). The article analyzes the changes in the size and structure of student enrollment for day studies in the Mari State Technical University that took place in 2001-2004 during the experiment with SPV.


The article considers problems of competition of educational programs in higher professional training within the experiment with funding colleges using State Personal Vouchers (SPV). The article analyzes the changes in the size and structure of student enrollment for day studies in the Mari State Technical University that took place in 2001-2004 during the experiment with SPV.


In 2003 and 2004, sociological polls were conducted among the students of colleges that were participants in the experiment on funding higher professional education with State Personal Vouchers. The article analyzes the results of these polls. They show that the attitude of the students is in general positive. Positive changes in their attitude in the course of the experiment are noted as well. After the introduction of the USE-SPV system, the educational mobility of the youth is largely determined by the individual capabilities of students and does not depend on social status, family income or the where the students are from. The SPV system makes higher education more accessible for students from the countryside, as compared to those from large cities.



How to stop reporting false grades on final examinations is one of the most complicated problems of our education. A discussion at a meeting of the Russian Public Council on the Development of Education (RPCDE) is perhaps the first professional discussion of this serious problem, which has both moral and socio-political aspects. Why do teachers choose to falsify the results of their own work, why are students unable to become sufficiently proficient in the state curriculum? Is the latter too complicated or too far removed from real life? Do these problems exist in other countries, and how are they solved? What role can the USE (Unified State Exam) and education reform as a whole play in overcoming this problem? These and other questions related to the final examination of high school students were the subject of the discussion at the RPCDE.

Education Statistics and Sociology


Data on government expenditures on education are presented. The salary level in education is compared to that in the economy in general and to the minimum subsistence level. Average prices for certain educational services are stated. The article uses materials provided by the Federal Service of State Statistics and by the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation. The material was prepared by I.Yu. Zabaturina, V.I. Kuznetsova and O.K. Ozerova, Senior Research Fellows at the Statistics and Education Monitoring Center of HSE.


The article analyzes the results of representative polls carried out by the Public Opinion Foundation in the framework of the 3rd stage of the study The Economy of Education. It estimates the expenses of families on educating their children at different ages, and of adults depending on where they are studying. The results are compared to the those for the 2003-2004 academic year whenever feasible. The structure of family expenses is analyzed.



Book Reviews and Survey Articles


Translated from English by O.Fadina