COVID-19 Vaccine Education: Is It Effective?

Keywords: Vaccination, COVID-19, prevention of coronavirus infection, attitude to vaccination, effectiveness of the educational program


The article presents experiment findings to verify the educational activities program in the field of COVID-19 vaccine prevention for students. The study was conducted at the Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, the analytical sample size is N = 780. Five aspects (as measuring scales) of attitudes towards vaccination against COVID-19 were identified: the benefits of vaccination against coronavirus for a person and society; denial of the coronavirus danger and hope for natural immunity; fear of the side effects of vaccination against coronavirus and distrust of vaccination safety information; confidence in the serious negative consequences of the coronavirus vaccine; disbelief in the proven effectiveness of Russian vaccines at the international level. A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of 4 strategies for influencing student's attitudes to vaccination against COVID-19 was carried out: lectures only (CG), lectures in combination with seminars / webinars in the traditional format (EG1), with discussions of real life cases related to vaccination and its effects (EG2), with holding student's debates (EG3). There are no gender differences between groups. There are differences in age, but the mean difference does not exceed 2 years. At the ascertaining stage, there are no differences on the scales; at the control stage, differences are revealed. On all 5 scales, positive and negative effects in the whole sample are almost equally likely. It was not possible to single out a fundamentally best strategy for educational influence. In general, the effectiveness of educational activities is somewhat greater when conducting lectures in combination with various kinds of seminars compared to lectures alone, but the effectiveness is low everywhere. Cohen's d standard effect sizes do not exceed 0,44. Slightly higher is efficiency when conducting lectures in combination with traditional seminars / webinars or case studies. The student's debates holding strategy did not meet expectations. A number of significant correlations were found between various aspects of attitudes towards vaccination with natural science literacy, logical thinking, verbal intelligence, the degree of fear of COVID-19, personal and situational anxiety. All correlations are weak, but their direction is as expected.


Download data is not yet available.


Belova S.S., Valueva E.A. (2008) Problemy kul'turnoy relevantnosti otsenki intellekta i kreativnosti [Problems of Cultural Relevance of the Assessment of Intelligence and Creativity]. Proceedings of the Final Scientific Session of the PI RAS (Moscow, 2008, 14–15 February), Moscow: PI RAS, pp. 49–63.

Betsch C., Schmid P., Heinemeier D., Korn L., Holtmann C., Böhm R. (2018) Beyond Confidence: Development of a Measure Assessing the 5C Psychological Antecedents of Vaccination. PLoS One, vol. 13, no 12, Article no e0208601

Bors D., Stokes T.L. (1998) Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices: Norms for First-Year University Students and the Development of a Short Form. Educational and Psychological Measurement, vol. 58, no 3, pp. 382–398.

Dubé E., MacDonald N.E. (2022) COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy. Nature Review Nephrology, vol. 18, July, pp. 409–410.

Fieselmann J., Annac K., Erdsiek F., Yilmaz-Aslan Y., Brzoska P. (2022) What Are the Reasons for Refusing a COVID-19 Vaccine? A Qualitative Analysis of Social Media in Germany. BMC Public Health, vol. 22, Article no 846.

Figueiredo de A., Simas C., Karafillakis E., Paterson P., Larson H.J. (2020) Mapping Global Trends in Vaccine Confidence and Investigating Barriers to Vaccine Uptake: A Large-Scale Retrospective Temporal Modelling Study. Lancet, vol. 396, September, pp. 898–908.

Gormally C., Brickman P., Lutz M. (2012) Developing a Test of Scientific Literacy Skills (TOSLS): Measuring Undergraduates' Evaluation of Scientific Information and Arguments. CBE-Life Sciences Education, vol. 11, no 4, pp. 364–377.

Halstead I.N., McKay R.T., Lewis G.J. (2022) COVID-19 and Seasonal Flu Vaccination Hesitancy: Links to Personality and General Intelligence in a Large, UK Cohort. Vaccine, vol. 40, no 32, pp. 4488–4495.

James E.K., Bokemper S.E., Gerber A.S., Omer S.B., Huber G.A. (2021) Persuasive Messaging to Increase COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake Intentions. Vaccine, vol. 39, iss. 49, pp. 7158–7165.

Krushelnitskaya O.B., Marinova T.Y., Pogodina A.V., Raskhodchikova M.N., Tolstykh N.N. (2021) Normativnoe povedenie v situatsii pandemii COVID-19: kak dobit´sya ego soblyudeniya u studentov? [Regulatory Behavior in the COVID-19 Pandemic: How to Get Students to Comply with It?]. Sotsial'naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo / Social Psychology and Society, vol. 12, no 1, pp. 198–221.

Lazarus J.V., Ratzan S.C., Palayew A., Gostin L.O., Larson H.C. J., Rabin K., El-Mohandes A. (2021) A Global Survey of Potential Acceptance of a COVID-19 Vaccine. Nature Medicine, vol. 27, no 2, pp. 225–228.

MacDonald N.E. (2015) SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy. Vaccine Hesitancy: Definition, Scope and Determinants. Vaccine, vol. 33, no 34, pp. 4161–4164.

Machingaidze S., Wiysonge C.S. (2021) Understanding COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy. Nature Medicine, vol. 27, no 8, pp. 1338–1339.

Margolis A.A. (2021) Novaya nauchnaya gramotnost´: problemy i trudnosti formirovaniya [New Science Literacy: Problems and Difficulties of Formation]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie / Psychological Science and Education, vol. 26, no 6, pp. 5–24.

Margolis A.A., Sorokova M.G., Shepeleva E.A., Raskhodchikova M.N., Shvedovskaya A.A., Radchikova N.P. (2023) Dokazatel'ny podkhod: verifikatsiya programmy prosvetitel'skikh meropriyatiy v oblasti vaktsinoprofilaktiki COVID-19 [Evidence Based Approach: Verifying the COVID-19 Vaccination Educational Program], 2022. Dataset.

Margolis A.A., Sorokova M.G., Shvedovskaya A.A., Radchikova N.P. (2022) Razrabotka i standartizatsiya oprosnika "Shkala otnosheniya k vaktsinatsii ot COVID-19" [The Questionnaire "COVID-19 Vaccine Attitude Scale" (COVID-19 VAS): Development and Standardization]. Psychology. Journal of Higher School of Economics, vol. 19, no 3, pp. 454-474 (in Russian) DOI:

Murphy J., Vallières F., Bentall R.P., Shevlin M., McBride O., Hartman T.K. et al. (2021) Psychological Characteristics Associated with COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Resistance in Ireland and the United Kingdom. Nature Communications, vol. 12, Article no 29.

Nemunaitis J., Lehmann P.V., Willey J. (2022) Pros and Cons for COVID-19 Vaccination and Boost of Young Adults in Light of Recent Literature. Medical Research Archives, vol. 10, no 8.

Rahman M.A., Islam M.S. (2021) Early Approval of COVID-19 Vaccines: Pros and Cons. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, vol. 17, no 10, pp. 3288–3296.

Ryaguzova E.V. (2021) Kognitivnye aspekty otnosheniya studencheskoy molodezhi k vaktsinatsii ot COVID-19 [Cognitive Aspects of Students' Attitudes Towards COVID-19 Vaccination]. Russian Psychological Journal, vol. 18, no 2, pp. 109–121.

Sawicki A.J., Żemojtel-Piotrowska M., Balcerowska J.M., Sawicka M.J., Piotrowski J., Sedikides C. et al., (2022) The Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Its Structure and Measurement Invariance across 48 Countries. Psychological Assessment, vol. 34, no 3, pp. 294–310.

Spielberger C., Sydeman S. (1994) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. The Use of Psychological Testing for Treatment Planning and Outcome Assessment (ed. M.E. Maruish), Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 292–321.

Troiano G., Nardi A. (2021) Vaccine Hesitancy in the Era of COVID-19. Public Health, vol. 194, no 2, pp. 245–251.

How to Cite
MargolisArkady A., SorokovaMarina G., ShepelevaElena A., GavrilovaEvgeniya V., RaskhodchikovaMarina N., ShvedovskayaАnna A., DrobiazkoAnzhela A., VihristukOlga V., ProkopyevaLyubov M., LisitsynaAlexandra A., RadchikovaNataly P., and VinogradovAlexei V. 2023. “COVID-19 Vaccine Education: Is It Effective?”. Voprosy Obrazovaniya / Educational Studies Moscow, no. 4 (December).
Research Articles