Академическая карьера после защиты кандидатской диссертации на примере четырех отраслей российской науки

  • Виктория Слепых Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики» https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2510-432X
  • Андрей Ловаков Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики» https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8644-9236
  • Мария Юдкевич Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики» https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9753-0902
Ключевые слова: академическая карьера, академическая мобильность, научная продуктивность, исследовательский сектор, университетский сектор

Аннотация

Наличие ученой степени — необходимое условие вхождения в академическое сообщество в качестве полноправного члена, и часто она становится первым шагом в построении академической карьеры. С целью исследования начальных этапов карьеры российских ученых проанализирована их публикационная активность в течение восьми лет после успешной защиты кандидатской диссертации, а именно статьи, проиндексированные в базах данных Scopus и eLibrary. Оценивались индивидуальная научная продуктивность и академическая мобильность, а также различия в построении карьеры между учеными, окончившими аспирантуру в организациях, которые относятся к разным секторам — университетскому и академическому. Проанализированы данные более чем 2 тыс. ученых, которые защитили кандидатские диссертации по биологии, химии, математике и физике в российских диссертационных советах в 2012 г. Выяснилось, что более половины из них продолжают работать в академической среде, и подавляющее большинство публикуют статьи в международных журналах. Доля ученых с низкой продуктивностью в выборке меньше, чем доля ученых с высокой продуктивностью. Исследователи, защитившиеся в ведущих университетах и исследовательских институтах, более продуктивны и менее мобильны по сравнению с учеными, защитившимися в университетах без особого статуса. Авторы приходят к выводу, что в рассматриваемых отраслях науки ученая степень кандидата наук — это прежде всего способ попасть в академическую профессию, и те, кто выбирает этот путь, становятся достаточно конкурентоспособными на международном уровне.

Скачивания

Данные скачивания пока не доступны.

Литература

Abramo G., D’Angelo C.A., di Costa F. (2022) Revealing the Scientific Comparative Advantage of Nations: Common and Distinctive Features. Journal of Informetrics, vol. 16, noArticle no 101244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2021.101244

Abylkalikov S.I. (2015) Migratsionnaya aktivnost' i prizhivaemost' naseleniya regionov Rossii [Migration Activity and Adaptation of Population in Regions of Russia]. Regional'nye issledovaniya, no 3, pp. 65–73.

Aghion P., Dewatripont M., Hoxby C., MasColell A., Sapir A. (2008) Higher Aspirations: An Agenda for Reforming European Universities. Bruegel: IPM S.A.

Alipova O., Lovakov A. (2018) Academic Inbreeding and Publication Activities of Russian Faculty. Tertiary Education and Management, vol. 24, no 1, pp. 66–82. https://doi.org/10.1080/13583883.2017.1395905

Altbach P.G., Yudkevich M., Rumbley L.E. (2015) Academic Inbreeding: Local Challenge, Global Problem. Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 317–330. http://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-015-9391-8

Bäker A. (2015) Non-Tenured Post-Doctoral Researchers’ Job Mobility and Research Output: An Analysis of the Role of Research Discipline, Department Size, and Coauthors. Research Policy, vol. 44 no.3, pp. 634–650. https://doi.org/10.15496/publikation-6408

Bednyi B.I., Mironos A.A., Rybakov N.V. (2019) Kak rossijskaya aspirantura vypolnyaet svoyu glavnuyu missiyu: naukometricheskie otsenki (stat'ya 2) [How Russian Doctoral Education Fulfills Its Main Mission: Scientometric Assessments (Article 2). Vysshee obrazovanie v Rossii / Higher Education in Russia, no 10, pp. 9–24. https://doi.org/10.31992/0869-3617-2019-28-10-9-24

Bednyi B.I., Ostapenko L.A., Serova T.V. (2014) Vypuskniki aspirantury estestvenno-nauchnogo profilya na rynke truda [Graduates of PhD Programs in Natural Sciences in the Labor Market]. University Management: Practice and Analysis, no 3, pp. 67–73.

Ben-David J. (1971) Centers of Learning: Britain, France, Germany, United States. London: Transaction Publishers.

Boman J., Beeson H., Sanchez Barrioluengo M., Rusitoru M. (2021) What Comes after a PhD? Findings from the DocEnhance Survey of Doctorate Holders on Their Employment Situation, Skills Match, and the Value of the Doctorate. Strasbourg: European Science Foundation (ESF). Available at: https://docenhance.eu (accessed 20 October 2022).

Brechelmacher A., Park E., Ates G., Campbell D.F.J. (2014) The Rocky Road to Tenure – Career Paths in Academia. Academic Work and Careers in Europe: Trends, Challenges, Perspectives (eds T. Fumasoli, G. Goastellec, B. Kehm), Springer International Publishing , pp. 13–40. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10720-2_2

Breimer L. (2010) A Group Comparison between Swedish MD-PhDs of 1991 and 2000. Medical Science Educator, vol. 20, no 1. pp. 10–13.

Casey B.H. (2009) The Economic Contribution of PhDs. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, vol. 31, no 3, pp. 219–227. http://doi.org/10.1080/13600800902974294

Cruz-Castro L., Sanz-Menéndez L. (2010) Mobility versus Job Stability: Assessing Tenure and Productivity Outcomes. Research Policy, vol. 39, no 1, pp. 27–38. http://doi.org/10.1016/J.RESPOL.2009.11.008

Demeter M., Pelle V., Mikulás G., Goyanes M. (2022) Higher Quantity, Higher Quality? Current Publication Trends of the Most Productive Journal Authors on the Field of Communication Studies. Publishing Research Quarterly, vol. 38, pp. 445–464. http://doi.org/10.1007/s12109-022-09893-2

Deville P., Wang D., Sinatra R., Song Ch., Blondel V.D., Barabasi A.-L. (2014) Career on the Move: Geography, Stratification, and Scientific Impact. Scientific Reports, no 4, Article no 4770. http://doi.org/10.1038/srep04770

Dutton J.E. (1980) The Impact of Inbreeding and Immobility on the Professional Role and Scholarly Performance of Academic Scientists. Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Boston, MA, April 7–11, 1980), ERIC_ED196714.

Enders J., Musselin Ch. (2008) Back to the Future? The Academic Professions

in the 21st Century. Higher Education to 2030. Volume 1: Demography, Paris: OECD, pp. 125–150. http://doi.org/10.1787/9789264040663-5-en

Fursov K.S. (2015) Rossiya v global'noy nauke: rezul'taty bibliometricheskogo analiza [Russia in Global Science: Sketches on the Basis of Bibliometric Analysis]. Naukovedcheskie issledovaniya 2015. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Science Studies 2015. Collection of Scientific Papers] (ed. A.I. Rakitov), Moscow: Center for Scientific and Information Research on Science, Education and Technology ISISS RAS, pp. 61–79.

Gokhberg L.M., Ditkovsky K.A., Evnevich E.I. et al. (2021) Indikatory nauki: 2021: statisticheskiy sbornik [Indicators of Science: 2021: Statistical Collection]. Moscow: HSE. https://doi.org/10.17323/978-5-7598-2376-6

Gorodnikova N.V., Gokhberg L.M., Kuznetsova I.A. et al. (2014) Indikatory nauki: 2014: statisticheskiy sbornik [Indicators of Science: 2014: Statistical Collection]. Moscow: HSE.

Gurtov V.A., Shchegoleva L.V. (2015) Nuzhny li publikatsii kandidatu nauk? [Does Candidate of Sciences Need to Publish Articles?]. Vysshee obrazovanie v Rossii / Higher Education in Russia, no 4, pp. 25–33.

Guskov A.E., Kosyakov D.V., Selivanova I.V. (2018) Boosting Research Productivity in Top Russian Universities: The Circumstances of Breakthrough. Scientometrics, vol. 117, no 6, pp. 1053–1080. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-018-2890-8

Guskov A.E., Selivanova I.V., Kosyakov D.V. (2021) Migratsiya rossijskikh issledovateley: analiz na osnove naukometricheskogo podkhoda [Migration of Russian Researchers: Analysis Based on a Scientometric Approach]. Bibliosphere, no 1, pp. 3–15. https://doi.org/10.20913/1815-3186-2021-1-3-15

Hottenrott H., Rose M.E., Lawson C. (2021) The Rise of Multiple Institutional Affiliations in Academia. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 72, no 3, pp. 1039–1058. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.24472

Inzelt A., Csonka L. (2015) The Careers of PhDs in Hungary: In the Social Sciences and Humanities. International Journal of Technology and Globalisation, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 64–84. http://doi.org/10.1504/IJTG.2015.077876

Kindsiko E., Vadi M. (2018) Career Patterns of Doctoral Graduates: Evidence from Estonia. Trames. Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, vol. 22, no 2, pp. 105–123. http://doi.org/10.3176/tr.2018.2.01

King D.A. (2004) The Scientific Impact of Nations. Nature, vol. 430, no 6997, pp. 311–316. http://doi.org/10.1038/430311a

Kotsemir M.N. (2012) Publikatsionnaya aktivnost' rossijskikh uchyonykh v vedushchikh mirovykh zhurnalakh [Publication Activity of Russian Researches in Leading International Scientific Journals]. Acta Naturae (Russian version), no 2, pp. 15–35.

Kryachko V.I. (2020) Otsenka akademicheskoy mobil'nosti issledovateley: vozmozhnosti i ogranicheniya sushchestvuyushchikh podkhodov [Academic Mobility Assessment: the Strengths and Limitations of Different Approaches]. University Management: Practice and Analysis, no 4, pp. 130–145. https://doi.org/10.15826/umpa.2020.04.040

Kuzminov Ya.I., Yudkevich M.M. (2021) Universitety v Rossii: kak eto rabotaet [Russian Universities: How the System Works]. Moscow: HSE Publishing House. https://doi.org/10.17323/978-5-7598-2373-5

Li N. (2017) Evolutionary Patterns of National Disciplinary Profiles in Research: 1996–2015. Scientometrics, vol. 111, no 1, pp. 493–520. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-017-2259-4

Matveeva N., Ferligoj A. (2020) Scientific Collaboration in Russian Universities before and after the Excellence Initiative Project 5-100. Scientometrics, vol. 124, pp. 2383–2407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-020-03602-6

Mindeli L.E., Lushchekina E.V. (2018) Fundamental'naya nauka: sostoyanie i tendentsii razvitiya material'no-tekhnicheskogo potentsiala [Fundamental Science: The Current State and Trends in the Development of Material and Technical Potential]. Moscow: The Institute for the Study of Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Moed H.F., Halevi G. (2014) A Bibliometric Approach to Tracking International Scientific Migration. Scientometrics, vol. 101, no 3, pp. 1987–2001. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-014-1307-6

Moed H.F., Markusova V., Akoev M. (2018) Trends in Russian Research Output Indexed in Scopus and Web of Science. Scientometrics, vol. 116, no 7, pp. 1153–1180. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-018-2769-8

Morano-Foadi S. (2005) Scientific Mobility, Career Progression, and Excellence in the European Research Area. International Migration, vol. 43, no 5, pp. 133–162. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2435.2005.00344.x

Musselin C. (2005) European Academic Labor Markets in Transition. Higher Education, vol. 49, no 1–2, pp. 135–154. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-004-2918-2

Neumann R., Tan K. (2011) From PhD to Initial Employment: The Doctorate in a Knowledge Economy. Studies in Higher Education, vol. 36, no 5, pp. 601–614. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2011.594596

Rickman D.S., Winters J.V. (2016) Ranking Authors and Institutions by Publications in Regional Science Journals: 2010–2014. Growth and Change, vol. 47, no 2, pp. 312–336. https://doi.org/10.1111/grow.12152

Robinson-Garda N., Sugimoto C. R., Murray D. et al. (2018) Scientific Mobility Indicators in Practice: International Mobility Profiles at the Country Level. El Profesional de la Information, vol. 27, no 3, pp. 511–520. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2018.may.05

Shmatko N., Katchanov Y., Volkova G. (2020) The Value of PhD in the Changing World of Work: Traditional and Alternative Research Careers. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, vol. 152, no 3, Article no 119907. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119907

Subbotin A., Aref S. (2021) Brain Drain and Brain Gain in Russia: Analyzing International Migration of Researchers by Discipline using Scopus Bibliometric Data 1996–2020. Scientometrics, vol. 126, no 9, pp. 7875–7900. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-021-04091-x

Teichler U. (2015) Academic Mobility and Migration: What We Know and What We Do Not Know. European Review, vol. 23, iss. S1, pp. 6–37. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1062798714000787

Wildgaard L., Wildgaard K. (2018) Continued Publications by Health Science PhDs, 5 Years Post PhD-Defence. Research Evaluation, vol. 27, no 4, pp. 347–357. https://doi.org/10.1093/reseval/rvy027

Yudkevich M., Altbach P.G., Rumbley L.E. (eds) (2015) Academic Inbreeding and Mobility in Higher Education Global Perspectives. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Опубликован
2022-12-22
Как цитировать
Слепых, Виктория, Андрей Ловаков, и Мария Юдкевич. 2022. «Академическая карьера после защиты кандидатской диссертации на примере четырех отраслей российской науки». Вопросы образования / Educational Studies Moscow, вып. 4 (декабрь), 260–297. https://doi.org/10.17323/1814-9545-2022-4-260-297.
Выпуск
Раздел
Исследовательские статьи