Non-Formal and Informal Learning: International Recognition Practices

  • Marina Kicherova University of Tyumen
  • Evgeny Zyuban University of Tyumen
  • Ekaterina Muslimova University of Tyumen
Keywords: non-formal learning, competence, informal learning, recognition of non-formal and informal learning, validation of non-formal and informal learning, competence recognition, competence certification, nostrification, corporate universities


This article explores how non-formal and informal learning evolved in the light of the global processes of digitization and technology modernization. A crosscountry analysis of participation in non-formal and informal learning activities is carried out, dwelling on the key models of recognition of such learning (based on the findings from Europe, Asia, the United States, and Australia). It is shown that social and legal aspects relative to the recognition of non-formal and informal learning differ dramatically across countries, affecting their economies, socioeconomic development, and pace of technological innovation. Recognition of non-formal and informal learning occurs at three levels. Internationally, competence standards and recognition mechanisms are designed. On a national scale, every country elaborates public documents regulating its specific mechanisms of validating and recognizing non-formal and informal learning. National differences in competence recognition practices manifest themselves where a number of countries offer accreditation of competences, and some recognize the skills acquired in volunteering, leisure and sociocultural activities. Finally, the local level reflects the interests of labor market stakeholders, such as corporations, employees and employers. The article also emphasizes the role of corporate universities in advocating the policy of competence recognition in non-formal and informal learning.


Download data is not yet available.
How to Cite
Kicherova, Marina, Evgeny Zyuban, and Ekaterina Muslimova. 2020. “Non-Formal and Informal Learning: International Recognition Practices”. Voprosy Obrazovaniya / Educational Studies Moscow, no. 1 (March), 126-58.
Theoretical and Applied Research