2019. no1

Theoretical and Applied Research

The Role of Flagship Universities in a Region: Transformation Models

Marina Baryshnikova — Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogy, Deputy CEO of the National Training Foun­dation. Address: Bld. 1, 7 1905 Goda Str., 123022 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: baryshnikova@ntf.ru

Elena Vashurina — Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Leading Expert at the International Of­fice of Kazan Federal University. Address: 18 Kremlevskaya Str., 420008 Ka­zan, Russian Federation. E-mail: evashuri@mail.ru

Elza Sharykina — Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Deputy Director of the Center of Exper­tise and Consulting, National Training Foundation. Address: Bld. 1, 7 1905 Goda Str., 123022 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: elzagrishkova@gmail.com

Yuri Sergeev — Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogy, Head of the Analytical Research Depart­ment, National Training Foundation. Address: Bld. 1, 7 1905 Goda Str., 123022 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: sergeev@ntf.ru

Irina Chinnova — Candidate of Sciences in Engineering, Associate Professor, Project Executive, Department for Vocational Education and Science Development, National Trai­ning Foundation. Address: 18 Kremlevskaya Str., 420008 Kazan, Russian Fede­ration. E-mail: chinnova@ntf.ru

Efforts in providing expert and methodological support for the implementation of flagship university development programs in 2016–2017 yielded a specific-purpose flagship university model and four generic flagship university transformation models: regional technology leader (RTL), regional comprehensive university (RCU), industry sector leader (industrial university) (IL), and trans-border region university (TBRU). The article provides distinctive features of the four models, analysis of the regions where specific types of models pre­vail, and the results of model testing.

As it has been found, flagship universities basically develop along two gene­ric models, RCU (classical universities, nearly half of the project participants) and RTL (engineering universities, one third of the flagship universities). For most universities, the type of transformation model pursued is strongly related to their current status and external environment characteristics. However, a number of universities fall in between and cannot be classified neatly under any particular model due to some specific external and internal factors. In this case, universities may use elements of more than one transformation model at once, yet the choice of model should first of all be based on the regional factors that determine the position and role of the flagship university in terms of the priority areas of regional development.


Alexander Kalgin — PhD, Associate Professor, School of Public Administration, Faculty of Social Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: akalgin@hse.ru

Olga Kalgina — Junior Researcher, Laboratory for Political Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 3 Krivoko­lenny Lane, 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: omiakinkova@hse.ru

Anna Lebedeva — Candidate of Sciences in Psychology, Senior Researcher, International Labo­ratory of Positive Psychology of Personality and Motivation, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: Bld. 2, 4 Slavyanskaya Sq., 109074 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: aalebedeva@hse.ru

The article presents an analytical review of literature on publication metrics as a tool of performance management in academia. Issues of quantitative re­search assessment are investigated in the light of modern views of motivation, in particular through the lens of self-determination theory. The article provi­des an insight into empirical studies on the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on publication productivity, research quality and subjective well­being. Accumulated international experience in performance management is used as a basis for developing recommendations on how to improve academic governance.


Saule Bekova — Junior Research Fellow, Centre of Sociology of Higher Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str7, 101000 Moscow. E-mail: bekova.sk@gmail.com

Zibeyda Dzhafarova — Research Assistant, Centre of Sociology of Higher Education, Institute of Edu­cation, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str7, 101000 Moscow. E-mail: ziba.jafarova@gmail.com

Doctoral education in Russia is characterized by high drop-out rates. Many experts associate this problem with the low financial support of PhD students and their need to find employment during education process. However, the current discussion mainly relies not on the research data, but on expert opinions based on scanty statistics or on the individual cases. Based on a 2016 survey of PhD students of the leading Russian universities the authors assess the scope and types of employment of postgraduates, as well as the experience of those PhD students, who balance study time with work. The current position, work duties and workload of PhD students were analyzed in regard to learning experience perception and career prospects they have. The authors conclude that the balancing study and work may benefit to PhD student education process and professional experience, but only in case when current work duties correspond to the thesis topic. The challenges of balancing study and work are highlighted. The results can be useful for develo­ping measures to reform doctoral education both at the university and at the state level.


Fedor Dudyrev — Candidate of Sciences in History, Director of the Center for Vocational Educa­tion Studies, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: fdudyrev@hse.ru

Olga Romanova — Analyst, Center for Vocational Education Studies, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: oromanova@hse.ru

Pavel Travkin — Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Research Fellow, Laboratory for Labor Market Studies, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: ptravkin@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

The study is devoted to employment of recent vocational graduates. The pro­portion of middle-school graduates in vocational enrollment has increased es­sentially over the past decade, which indicates that the choice of vocational trajectories, on average, is now made at lower age. It was established based on the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations that on average 44 percent of students combined work and study in 2010–2015. Vocational students mostly combine and work and study because of financial constraints, their study-work rarely being related to their major. Later on, when making a transition from education to the labor market, vocational graduates have to ac­cept one of the first job offers as they cannot afford a longer job search. The second part of the study draws upon the findings from the 2010–2015 sam­pling survey of graduate employment administered by the Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat). It is shown that combining work and study has posi­tive effects on employability of graduates as well as on the size of their starting salaries. In addition, self-funded students and those who combine study with major-related work are more likely to get employed in their field of study af­ter graduation. Education-job mismatch among graduates is found to entail income “penalties”.


Ekaterina Dyachenko — Research Fellow, Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: Room 443, 11 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: edyachen­ko@hse.ru

Asya Mironenko — Associate Researcher, Center for Institutional Analysis of Science & Educa­tion, European University at Saint Petersburg. Address: 6/1A Gagarinskaya Str., 191187 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. E-mail: amironenko@eu.sbp.ru

The article explores the relationship between rectors’ professional back­grounds and the development of the universities governed by them. The basic hypothesis that universities governed by rectors with managerial experience are relatively more successful in their development is tested using a pre-de­veloped classification of rectors’ background. Development of universities was assessed by exploring how their academic, research and financial indicators changed over time. The universities were grouped into clusters so that dyna­mics of indicators were compared for universities with similar performance profiles. The study uses the data on performance of Russian ( public and pri­vate) universities in 2013 and 2016 which they submitted for the Monitoring of University Effectiveness. Rectors’ biographical data was collected from a nu­mber of publicly available sources. In addition to the main analysis, the article also presents the demographic characteristics of Russian university rectors.



Natalya Datsun — Candidate of Sciences in Physics and Mathematics, Associate Professor, De­partment of Software Computing Systems, Perm State University. Address: 15 Bukireva Str., 614990 Perm, Russian Federation. E-mail: nndatsun@inbox.ru

The study suggests broadening the taxonomy of MOOC models and provides evidence for the prevalence of Small Private Online Courses (SPOC) among open education models in the post-MOOC era. A systematic literature review is performed to analyze research publications of 2013–2018 on using SPOCs in European university education. It has been found that SPOCs combine well with formal university education in European Bachelor’s degree programs when using pedagogical models like blended learning, flipped classroom and collaborative learning. We recommend spreading SPOC practices in Russian higher education to improve the learning motivation of students.


Ilya Korshunov — Candidate of Sciences in Chemistry, Professor, Head of the Lifelong Learning Group, Main Scientist, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: Bld. 10, 16 pereulok Potapovskiy, 101000, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: ikorshunov@hse.ru

Vera Peshkova — Candidate of Sciences in History, Senior Researcher, Institute of Sociology of the Federal Center for Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Address: Bld. 5, 24/35 Krzhizhanovskogo, 117218 Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: pever@mail.ru

Natalya Malkova — Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, Foreign Languages Department, Moscow Polytechnic University. Address: 38 Bolshaya Semenovskaya St, 107023 Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: malkova_n_v@mail.ru

Open statistics is analyzed to examine the successful strategies of implementing continuing education (CE) programs by vocational schools and universities. The study identifies the industries that benefit from those successful strategies the most. In vocational schools, such industries include medicine, oil and gas production and chemical processing, transport, mining and metallurgy, electrical engineering and telecommunications, pedagogy, tertiary sector, architecture and construction. As for higher education, CE programs are pursued most actively by medical, multidisciplinary, pedagogical, law and economics, and polytechnic universities. A relationship has been established between CE enrollment and general student population.

Implementation of CE programs contributes to financial sustainability of vocational institutions. Successful strategies may ensure from 25 to 40 percent of the total budget in educational institutions that specialize in oil and gas production and chemical processing, medicine, electrical and power engineering, ICT, law and economics. Efficient strategies include narrow specialization and collaboration with strategic enterprises, while online marketing tools play a relatively small part.

Continuing education was found to contribute little to financial sustainability of large national universities despite higher CE enrollments, barely ac- counting for five percent of their total budget. At the same time, a number of small institutions of higher education (regional branch campuses and private universities) can generate over half of their income from CE programs, university status playing a guiding role in student attraction. Analysis of university strategies shows that low interest in implementing CE programs for the good of regional industries is related to the absence of CE-based indicators in annual monitoring reports and the lack of established policies for integrating CE programs into higher education.


Sainbayar Gundsambuu — Ph. D. Candidate, Graduate School of Human Sciences, Osaka University. Address: Osaka University, 1–1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka Prefecture, 565– 0871, Japan. E-mail: sgundsam@fulbrightmail.org

Internationalization has become a driving motivation for reform in higher edu­cation. Higher education reform brings changes in practice, culture, and en­vironment where the internationalization can take place. The government of Mongolia acknowledges internationalization as a pathway towards improving the quality of higher education and increasing the ranking status of domestic higher education institutions in Asia. Following this government policy, educa­tion providers are striving to internationalize their institutions. This paper aims to discuss the current process of reforms in higher education as well as na­tional and institutional policies and initiatives towards internationalization. The paper also explores the concept of English Medium Instruction in Mongolian higher education institutions as a growing global phenomenon of internatio­nalization. This paper does not intend to evaluate the internationalization pro­cess of universities and /or their strategies.

Education Statistics and Sociology


Marina Baskakova — Doctor of Sciences in Economics, Leading Researcher, Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. E-mail: baskakovame@mail.ru

Irina Soboleva — Doctor of Sciences in Economics, Head of the Center for Employment Policy and Social and Labor Relationships, Institute of Economics of the Russian Aca­demy of Sciences. E-mail: irasobol@gmail.com

Address: 32 Nakhimovsky Ave, 117218 Moscow, Russian Federation.

We explore the new aspects of functional illiteracy associated with the inability to seamlessly fit into the new economic reality that requires mastering skills and technologies adequate to the digital economy. Data on the level of com­puter literacy and web accessibility for different categories of population is used as basic indicators of readiness to use digital technology in everyday life and in the workplace. The study shows that about one third of the adult popu­lation in Russia is at risk of functional illiteracy. Older cohorts, low-educated people from low-income households, and rural dwellers are the most vulne­rable groups. The regional factor makes an additional contribution to the digi­tal divide. We argue that special measures and programs to overcome digital illiteracy targeted at population groups in high-risk geographic areas should be developed. The article is based on the data from the Integrated Household Living Conditions Survey conducted by Rosstat and the Federal Statistical Sur­vey on the Use of Information Technology.


Irina Shcheglova — Junior Researcher, Center of Sociology of Higher Education; Postgraduate Student, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str, 101000 Moscow, Russian Federa­tion. E-mail: ishcheglova@hse.ru

Yuliya Koreshnikova — Analyst, Postgraduate Student, Institute of Education, National Research Uni­versity Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: koreshnikova@hse.ru

Olga Parshina — Postgraduate Student, Graduate Center, City University of New York. Address: 205 East 42nd Street, New York, NY10017. E-mail: parshinaolga23@gmail.com

This study explores how academic, research and extracurricular engagement is linked to the development of critical thinking in undergraduates using a spe­cific statistical model. Empirical basis of research was provided by the results of the Student Experience in the Research University (SERU) survey conduc­ted in one of Russian national research universities in 2017 (N = 3,344). Binary logistic regression reveals a statistically significant relationship between the development of critical thinking and student engagement in learning, research and extracurricular activities, higher involvement corresponding to better cri­tical thinking skills. The findings may be useful for developing curricula, allo­cating student workload, and devising new initiatives for university students.

History of Education


Tetiana Zemliakova — Department Member, Department of Political Sciences, European University at St. Petersburg; PhD Candidate in History, European University Institute, Flo­rence. Address: 6/1 Gagarinskaya St, 191187 St. Petersburg, Russian Federa­tion. Email: tetiana.zemliakova@eui.eu

The study investigates into the background, process and effects of the Ger­man-American academic transfer of the second half of the 19th century and its role in the development of the modern American research university. The crisis of the traditional American college that reached its climax after the Ci­vil War prompted a few waves of academic migrations to Germany. Most gra­duates chose to return to the US, where they formed a group of reformers to promote the German university model during the Academic Revolution. The student body is analyzed as the main mediator which determined the way this model was adapted and implemented. In analyzing the transfer of the concept of “academic freedom”, the study looks at how exactly the process was af­fected by the mediator. The reformist agenda pursued by the German gra­duates in the US was directed against the hegemony of pietist administrators and the ideology of the “all-rounded-man” education. Achievement of those goals suggested the establishment of graduate research programs to be re­gulated by the academic community at its own discretion. The article consists of three parts, which describe the background, motives and process of stu­dent migration, the position of American students in German universities, and their perception of the German research university model. The final part of the article examines the political agenda of the “reformist-returnees” and its implementation.