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2018. no1

Theoretical and Applied Research

8–37

Elena Kardanova - Candidate of Sciences in Mathematics and Physics, Associate Professor, Head of Center for Monitoring the Quality in Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: ekardanova@ hse.ru

Alina Ivanova - Researcher in Center for Monitoring the Quality in Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: aeivanova@hse.ru

Pavel Sergomanov - Candidate of Sciences in Psychology, Associate Professor, Head of the Center for Leadership, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: psergomanov@hse.ru

Tatiana Kanonire - PhD, Associate Professor, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: tkanonire@hse.ru

Inna Antipkina - Researcher in Center for Monitoring the Quality in Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: iantipkina@hse.ru

Diana Kaiky - Research Assistant in Center for Monitoring the Quality in Education, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: dkaiky@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation

The first school year is very important in terms of the further educational trajectories of pupils. Information about the range of individual needs and abilities of children and prognosis of their educational achievements allow the educational system to improve school adaptation and teaching approaches. This study presents the results of an assessment of 7778 first-graders from four Russian cities (Moscow, Naberezhnye Chelny, Tambov and Sevastopol). The children’s results from cognitive (mathematics and reading skills) and noncognitive (personal, social, and emotional skills) assessments were analyzed using the cluster k-mean analysis in order to describe typical patterns of their development. The analysis of both cognitive and noncognitive skills improves the interpretation of the four obtained typical „portraits“ of first-graders. The results can help teachers in the selection and amendment of educational materials and other means regarding children’s education as well as adaptation to school.

38–57

Mary Rumyantzeva - Head of Human Studies Section at the Lyceum, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: mrumyantzeva@hse.ru

The teaching of humanities in schools in the Republic of Tatarstan is analyzed in terms of their function of preserving and supporting civil identity. The practice of teaching and the content of educational disciplines are explored in order to find out whether pedagogical instruments, aimed at the formation of a regional identity, contribute toward the development of a common citizenship identity. Such methods as overt observation, in-depth interviews with the school administration and with teachers of humanities, as well as content analysis of textbooks on the history of Tatarstan were used. The gap between regional policy and real teaching practices was defined as the result of the study. The educational policy of the region in the field of teaching humanities is aimed at solving the tasks of national policy, including the ethnic identity formation of students. However practically the emphasis is on softening the national issue during the process of teaching these disciplines, primarily by including the history of the region in the history of the country or leveling the issue about the ethnicity of pupils.

Reading Literacy of Russian Fourth-Graders: Lessons from PIRLS‑2016
58–78

Galina Zuckerman - Doctor of Sciences in Psychology, Leading Researcher at the Psychological Institute, Russian Academy of Education. Address: 2 Mokhovaya Str., 125009 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: galina.zuckerman@gmail.com

Galina Kovaleva - Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogy, Head of the Center for Assessment of Education Quality, Institute for Strategy of Education Development, Russian Academy of Education. Address: 5/16 Makarenko Str., 105062 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: galina_kovaleva_rao@mail.ru

Viktoriya Baranova - Researcher at the Center for Assessment of Education Quality, Institute for Strategy of Education Development, Russian Academy of Education. Address: 5/16 Makarenko Str., 105062 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: vikjur@mail.ru

Among the key concepts of the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), reading comprehension processes are identified as the most operational, because they can serve as a basis for new teaching practices and new tools to assess academic achievements. The concept of reading processes, which is the focus of this article, has one more advantage: reading processes are defined in the PIRLS terms as universal and good for understanding both literary and informational texts. The PIRLS‑2016 test demonstrated that the reading literacy of Russian fourth-graders was far superior to that of their peers from fifty other countries. An item-by-item comparison of Russian fourth-graders’ answers to the test questions with the average PIRLS‑2016 results proves that Russian primary school graduates can interpret and integrate ideas and information extracted from a text much better than they can retrieve explicitly stated information from the same text. Determining the strongest and relatively weak points in the reading comprehension processes of Russian fourth-graders’ is required in order to unleash the educational resources that are not currently used and consequently to improve reading literacy at every stage of education.

Science Education in Russia According to the Results of the TIMSS and PISA International Studies
79–109

Alexander Pentin - Candidate of Sciences in Physics and Mathematics, Head of the Centre for Science Education. Institute for Strategy of Education Development of the Russian Academy of Education. E-mail: pentin@mail.ru

Galina Kovaleva - Candidate of Sciences in Education, Head of the Centre of Evaluating the Quality of Education. Institute for Strategy of Education Development of the Russian Academy of Education. E-mail: galina_kovaleva_rao@mail.ru

Elena Davidova - Junior researcher of the Centre of Evaluating the Quality of Education. Institute for Strategy of Education Development of the Russian Academy of Education. E-mail: centeroko@mail.ru

Elena Smirnova - Junior researcher of the Centre of Evaluating the Quality of Education. Institute for Strategy of Education Development of the Russian Academy of Education. E-mail: centeroko@mail.ru

Address: 5/16 Makarenko Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

The paper considers features and problems of science education in Russian schools according to how they appeared in the TIMSS and PISA international studies. The main features consist in the decline of student achievement in science when moving from primary school to secondary school and the sharp difference between the results of Russian students demonstrated in TIMSS and PISA. The conclusions are based both on the analysis of the data obtained in the studies (the results of tests, questionnaires of participants, content of tasks) and characteristics of the Federal educational standards and programmes related to science education. The result of the work established the factors influencing the achievements of Russian students in Science at primary, lower and upper secondary school. Namely, the high results by 4th grade pupils in TIMSS is largely due to the high activity of students in acquiring scientific knowledge outside of school. The sharp difference between the results of 8th‑9th grade students in the TIMSS and PISA studies is explained by, on the one hand, the close accordance of the TIMSS framework to the Russian science curricula and, on the other hand, their significant divergence from the PISA framework as the Russian curricula scarcely focused on scientific literacy as a main goal. As one of the factors that explains the decline in the outcomes in physics by 11th-graders in TIMSS Advanced 2015, in comparison with previous cycles, we discuss the increase in the percentage of tasks in the TIMSS test about the physics of the atom and the atomic nucleus, which proved to be more difficult for students. A common feature, which is revealed by studies of TIMSS, PISA and TIMSS-Advanced results from 2015, is that the teaching of science subjects in Russian schools is more focused on acquiring and demonstrating knowledge, but to a lesser extent on their application and the development of scientific practices, such as: formulation of scientific questions, planning research, interpreting data, and constructing scientific evidence. The results of the work propose a modernization of the science education framework in Russian schools, including the introduction of a compulsory subject “Science” in grades 5–6.

Practice

110–131

Elena Gorbunova - Master in Sociology, Analyst, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: e.gorbunova88@gmail.com

Student withdrawal (attrition) is becoming an actual phenomenon due to demographic changes, modernization of the economy and education, especially for universities located in economically depressed areas. The tradition of research on student withdrawal is still  being formed in Russia, so it is important to clarify the main terminology used for the analysis of withdrawal, to develop a theoretical framework that takes into account the specifics of Russian universities, and to specify the prospects for the elaboration of research. A review of the terminology used in international studies to study the withdrawal as well as the history of studying this phenomenon in the USA is presented. The basic concepts of withdrawal, developed in sociology, psychology, organization theory and economics, are considered. They indicate the effectiveness of accounting for a wide range of factors of differing natures in the study of withdrawal: the processes of social and academic integration, the psychological characteristics of students, the organizational characteristics of the university and educational programs. When adapting existing models to Russian higher education, it is important to take into account that compulsory withdrawal caused by academic failure of students predominates in Russian universities, while international models were created to describe voluntary withdrawal from higher education institutions. National research which can serve as the basis for the development of a model of student withdrawal from Russian universities is analyzed.

132–153

Bjørn Stensaker - Professor, University of Oslo, Department of Education. Address: Box 1092 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway. E-mail: bjorn.stensaker@iped.uio.no

During the last few decades a high number of university alliances and strategic partnerships between higher education institutions have been established all over the world. This development can be interpreted in different ways and the article offer some theoretical  perspectives relevant to understanding the emergence of and the engagement in institutional collaborations, and how such collaboration affects the field of higher education. The article argues that alliances between universities are ways to enhance organizational capacity but also to take control of more competitive environments. Furthermore, alliances and partnerships can also be seen as the means to enhance organizational creativity and innovation in more organic ways. The paper gives an empirical illustration of how alliances develop and transform over time, and discusses possible long-term implications of alliance formation in the higher education sector.


154–173

Ksenia Romanenko - Postgraduate Student, Analyst at the Laboratory for University Development, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: kromanenko@hse.ru

The “human factor”, i. e. the conflict and protest behavior of students and faculty, often becomes a key problem during and after university consolidations. This paper provides an insight into reorganization-related university transformations that are perceived as tangible and important by students, approaching the issue from the viewpoint of the radical organizational change theory. Four cases of Russian university mergers are investigated. Data btained from individual and group interviews with students who attended the universities during the reorganization is used to build clusters of “formal” and “informal” changes that the students tagged as the most important. It  transpired that students cared most about changes in the perceived value of their graduate diplomas and their potential status as prospective graduates of a particular university. Meanwhile, the content of education programs and the objective university performance indicators were rarely mentioned by students when they were talking about the possible gains and losses that reorganization could bring about. Instead, they would often refer to changes in the educational process, formal and informal communication within the university, and the university culture and spirit. The findings reveal university characteristics which matter most to students in the case of university reorganization and which thus should be considered when planning and implementing university consolidations.

Education Statistics and Sociology

174–199

Yana Roshchina - Candidate of Sciences ( PhD) in Mathematical and Instrumental Methods in Economics, Senior Research Fellow at the Laboratory for Studies in Economic sociology, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: yroshchina@hse.ru 

Sergey Roshchin - Candidate of Sciences (PhD) in Labour Economics, Vice Rector, Head of the Laboratory for Labour Market Studies, Faculty of Economic Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: sroshchin@hse.ru 

Victor Rudakov - Candidate of Sciences (PhD) in Economics, Research Fellow at the Laboratory for Labour Market Studies, Faculty of Economic Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: vrudakov@hse.ru 

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

The paper examines issues connected with the implementation of MOOCs in teaching, motivation to study on these courses and the attitudes of the students and faculty towards the possible substitution of university courses for MOOCs. The study is also devoted to the evaluation of determinants in the demand for MOOCs among the students and faculty of Russian universities. The study is based on cross-sectional data from a student and university faculty survey carried out within the framework of the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations Project (2016). The results of the study indicate that MOOCs are demanded more by university faculty than by students. We found that faculty and student attitudes towards the substitution of general university courses for MOOCs is neutral, and negative regarding the substitution of special professional courses for MOOCs. Regression analysis revealed that students with higher academic achievement and faculty involved in research activities and participating in summer schools and vocational training are more likely to use MOOCs in their studies. Studying in a top university has a strong positive impact on the probability of student participation in MOOCs. However, the same effect for university faculty is ambiguous.

Discussion

200–233

Vadim Radaev - Doctor of Sciences in Economic Theory, First Vice Rector, Professor at the Faculty of Social Sciences, Head of the Laboratory for Studies in Economic sociology, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: radaev@hse.ru 

Sergei Medvedev - Candidate of Sciences (PhD) in History of International Relations and Foreign Policy, Professor at the Faculty of Social Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: smedvedev@hse.ru

Ekaterina Talalakina - Candidate of Sciences (PhD) in Theory and Methods of Education, Associate Professor at the Department of Foreign Languages, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: etalalakina@hse.ru 

Andrei Dementiev - Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Economic Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: dementiev@hse.ru 

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

The discussion on My Five Major Challenges as a Teacher was the first meeting within professional development program for HSE faculty, namely, Teach for HSE. The program is designed to improve teaching skills and represents a working tool that will allow any committed teacher to either design a new course from scratch or to redesign an existing one. Participants will discuss teaching models adopted by the leading universities. In the first cycle, the focus will be placed on problem-based learning. The organizers hope that the program will stimulate an ever wider discussion on teaching to evolve. In this paper the reader is introduced to four personal reflections on teaching experiences by teachers in widely different domains: sociology, economics, political science, and English as a foreign language. Even though they have been teaching to college students for many years, every day they have to answer questions regarding what to teach, how to teach, what to teach for, and whom they teach.

History of Education

234–246

Ekaterina Kostyleva - Senior Teacher, Teacher Training Department, Taurida Academy, V. I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University. Address: Taurida Academy, 4 Vernadskogo Ave, 295007 Republic of Crimea. E-mail: katerinakostyleva@mail.ru 

Archival materials and contemporary studies are used to identify the specific features of teacher education and advanced training in German colonial schools in the Taurida Governorate. The paper investigates into the conditions under which German colonists’ educational institutions evolved, comparing the data on changes in the number of German primary schools and central vocational schools in the Taurida Governorate. It also describes the specific aspects of teaching organization and education content in central vocational schools as educational institutions of advanced type designed to train teachers for German primary schools. Such forms of advanced training for German teachers as temporary teacher education courses and pedagogical conferences are presented.

Book Reviews and Survey Articles

247–256

Georgy Lyubarsky - Candidate of Sciences in Biology, senior researcher, Zoological Museum of Moscow University. Address: 2 Bolshaya Nikitskaya Str., 125009 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: lgeorgy@yandex.ru

Education practices inherited from the Soviet school are fading away and will hardly be inspired with new life. Society has changed, and so have the education goals, which rarely become the subject of rational discussion nowadays. As a response to these new conditions, it would be good to see diversification of the education system, so that everyone could get what they want, whether it be effortless learning or real education obtained through hard work. Today, unfortunately, education remains uniform and the window of opportunities is not growing larger.

257–265

Natalya Borisenko - Candidate of Sciences in Philology, Leading Researcher, Psychological Institute of Russian Academy of Education. Address: 9 Mokhovaya str., p. 4, Moscow, 125009, Russian Federation. E-mail: borisenko_natalya@list.ru

This review article discusses the results of a fundamental research on factors affecting the educational achievements of students. Among the discussed concepts are meta-analysis, synthesis of meta-analyses, barometers of influence, and effect size. The author presents an abstract overview of the book contents by chapters and analyses the six main sources of influence: the student, the family, the school, the teacher, the curricula, and teaching and learning approaches. Examples of specific factors (including effect size) are presented, such as biographical factors, feedback, meta-cognitive strategies, repeated reading programs, homework, school finances, class size, etc. The reviewer draws the conclusion that, despite its uniqueness, which appears in the coverage of meta-analyses and the amount of considered factors, the results of John Hattie’s study should be transferred to Russian educational practice very cautiously.

Reflections on…

266–286

Elena Voznesenskaya - Candidate of Sciences in History, leading researcher Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences. Address: 24/35, Krzhizhanovskogo Str., 117218, Moscow, Russian Federation. e-mail: maslovka3@mail.ru

The article provides a historical perspective on a key conflict in the development of rural education, which is that it is usually accompanied by rejection of rural labor and expansion of “pro-urban” orientations and practices among youth. Since the Russian Empire of the late 19th century, throughout the Soviet Union, and into post-Soviet Russia, the government has been trying hard to retain rural population where it is and to ensure “continuity” of rural youth’s agricultural activities (in the terms of the expert rhetoric of the late 19th century). Education policy makers of the Russian Empire believed that the reason for youth rejecting rural labor was the “excessiveness” of school education with regard to actual agricultural needs. Such excessiveness was normally fought by bringing down the level of school education attainment and reducing school hours in favor of agricultural education. The same policy, if only otherwise formulated, resonates in both the Soviet and the post-Soviet periods. No constructive solution has been found yet to solve the problems of rural education, and rural schools in particular. The fundamental conflict in such development can only be resolved in the context of emerging new conditions of rural existence (agro-industrial complex, distance learning).