2017. no1

Theoretical and Applied Research


Diliara Valeeva - PhD Candidate at the Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research, University of Amsterdam. Address: 1001NE, Nieuwe Achtergracht, 166, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. E-mail: D. Valeeva@uva.nl

Sofia Dokuka - Candidate of Sciences in Social Structure, Social Institutes and Processes, Research Fellow at theCenter for Institutional Studies of the International Research Laboratory for Institutional Analysis of Economic Reforms, National Research University — Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000, Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: sdokuka@hse.ru

Maria Yudkevich - Candidate of Sciences in Economic Theory, Associate Professor, Vice Rector, Director of theCenter for Institutional Studies, National Research University — Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000, Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: yudkevich@hse.ru

Student academic failures have been traditionally explained by their abilities, socioeconomic status, institutional and social environment. However, the same factors are ignored by researchers when it comes to students at risk of dropping out. Using data about dynamic social networks, we study changes in the status of students with retakes. It was  revealed that over time students with low academic achievements become socially isolated that increases their risk of dropping out. The article offers recommendations on surmounting such isolation and contributes to studies of social engagement of students in institutional and social environment.


Ilya Prakhov - Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Associate Professor, Research Fellow, International Research Laboratory for Institutional Analysis of Economic Reforms, Center for Institutional Studies, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: iprahov@hse.ru

Based on the data of cohort longitudinal study “Educational and Career Trajectories”, factors affecting absolute and relative expected returns on education (ROE) are investigated.Surveys of Moscow students show that academic performance assessed by Unified State Exam (USE) scores is an important predictor of students’ salary expectations. Besides, expected ROE also correlates positively with college selectivity. Students in private colleges expect to be paid lower than those in state universities. Social and cultural capital of the family (parental education, number of books at home) may influence salary expectations indirectly, through academic performance. Students from wealthier families expect to have a higher ROE than their disadvantaged peers, and so do boys as compared to girls. Students working part-time expect to be paid higher than non-working students after graduation but anticipate a lower return on investment in relative terms.


Alexey Golubitsky - Director of the School of the Future, Municipal Budgetary Secondary Education Institution (MBOU SOSh). Address: 1 Anny Barinovoy St, 238311 Bolshoe Isakovo rural settlement, Guryevsk District, Kaliningrad Oblast, Northwestern Federal District, Russian Federation. E-mail: algoal@yandex.ru

A socio-geographic atlas of secondary education in Kaliningrad Oblast has been made after testing new instruments designed for measuring educational inequality at regional and local levels, its reasons and consequences, and the factors affecting its manifestation. The data for the atlas was obtained from open databases on education quality, information on the region’s attractiveness as a location for real estate investments provided by real estate agents, and the results of measuring the distance of schools from the hubs of social
wellbeing. The main assumption at the base of the study is that the influence of environment (factors external to school) on education quality dominates the importance of internal processes. A comparative analysis of the resulting maps of education and territory  quality has revealed not only individual resilient schools and schools that require support but also the low quality zones and socio-geographic anomalies of academic resilience. The article offers methods for studying and overcoming the “curse of the territory” and educational inequality at regional and local levels.

Following 7th International Conference of RAHER


Roman Abramov - Candidate of Sciences in Theory, History and Methods of Sociology, Associate Professor, Deputy Head of the Analysis of Social Institutions Department, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: rabramov@hse.ru

Ivan Gruzdev - Director of the Center for Institutional Research, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: igruzdev@hse.ru

Evgeniy Terentev - Candidate of Sciences in Sociology, Leading Analyst of the Center for Institutional Research, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: eterentev@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000, Moscow, Russian Federation.

The article touches upon the changes in roles within the academic profession in Russia arising from the education and science reform. The analysis is made through the example of the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE). Both quantitative and qualitative data is used to suggest a typology of faculties based on their work time allocation. The typology includes five types of faculties: teacher researchers, teachers, researchers, “universal soldiers”, and experts. Different types show different levels of  atisfaction with their work time budget: those who do a lot of teaching and administrative work tend to be less satisfied. This can be explained by the changes in the system of faculty certification in Russia and by how academic staff responds to those changes. Interview results are used to highlight the typical work time allocation problems faced by faculties. Those include a low degree of freedom to manage one’s own work time, the lack of boundary in work-life balance, excessive teaching load, an increase in unscheduled tasks, and the problem of workload delegation requiring high research and management skills.


Giovanni Abramo - Head of the Laboratory for Studies in Research Evaluation, Institute for System Analysis and Computer Science (IASI–CNR), National Research Council of Italy. Address: Via dei Taurini, 19, 00185 Roma, Italy. E-mail: giovanni.abramo@uniroma2.it

This work provides a critical examination of the most popular bibliometric indicators and methodologies to assess the research performance of individuals and institutions. The aim is to raise the fog and make practitioners more aware of the inherent risks in do-it-myself practices, or cozy out-of-the-shelf solutions to the difficult question of how to evaluate research. The manuscript also proposes what we believe is the correct approach to bibliometric evaluation of research performance.


Evgeniya Popova - Junior Researcher at the Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Empirical Studies, National Research University Higher School of Economics (Perm). Е-mail: epopova@hse.ru

Marina Sheina - Candidate of Sciences in Mathematical Physics, Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Economics, Management, and Business Informatics, National Research University Higher School of Economics (Perm). Е-mail: msheina@hse.ru

Address: 38 Studencheskaya St., 614070 Perm, Russian Federation.

The paper tests the hypothesis about better academic performance of graduates from stronger high schools and the nature of correlations between college students’ achievements and their high school performance (whether they performed on average better or worse than their peers) with due regard for school characteristics. Regression analysis is used to measure the relationship between college performance and USE (Unified State Exam) scores, the type of high school, and high school performance (while controlling for individual student characteristics), as well as the fact of receiving regional Governor’s scholarship in addition to student allowance. The sample includes 313 first-year Economics and Management students admitted to National Research University Higher School of Economics (Perm) in 2012 and 2013. Cumulative first-year GPA is used as an indicator of academic performance. As it turns out, graduating from an advanced high school or from a school with high average USE scores in mathematics provides no guarantee of better educational outcomes for firstyear students. High school performance correlates positively with academic achievements in college, the degree of relationship depending on school characteristics. Educational outcomes of students who performed better than average in low-performing schools can be explained by the high level of  ntrinsic motivation typical of academically successful students. Therefore, ignoring the information on college performance of graduates from low-performing schools may lead to underestimating their academic achievement. The fact of receiving a Governor’s scholarship proves to be a significant performance factor for Management students only.


Waldemar Siwinski - President of Perspektywy Education Foundation, Vice President of IREG Observatory on Academic Ranking and Excellence. Address: Nowogrodzka 31, 00–511 Warsaw, Poland. E-mail: w.siwinski@perspektywy.pl

The global ranking system is in a state of violent transformation. We can already see the emerging contours of a new ranking system with the four distinguished elements: regional systems, customer-centered systems, multi-league systems, discipline-based systems. To reflect regional characteristics, including language, culture, global ranking systems should become regional ranking systems. To satisfy readers’ different expectations towards rankings, ranker-centered systems should become customer-centered  ystems. To reflect different institutional missions; size, locations, current unified ranking systems, they should become multiple ranking systems. Institutional ranking systems should become discipline-based ranking systems in order to reflect disciplinary differences. One of the most significant directions of changes in rankings is a search for a way to include in the international rankings other missions than research; especially important here are such aspects as excellence in teaching and the so called third mission or the university’s social mission.



Mariya Vorobyeva - Candidate of Sciences in Culturology, Associate Professor, Philosophy Department, Ural State University of Economics. E-mail: vorobyova-mariya@yandex.ru

Elena Kochukhova - Candidate of Sciences in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Philosophy Department, Ural State University of Economics. E-mail: elenascause@yandex.ru

Address: 8 March St, 620000 Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation.

Philosophy teachers go about their daily routine in a controversial field created by their personal ideas about education quality, topic planning, and the optimal number of hours overlapping with the education standard requirement for developing general cultural competence in students within a general philosophy course. In a situation like this, the issue of choosing specific teaching methods becomes that of complying with professional standards, of being satisfied with the job done, and of private time. The article attempts to  problematize the possibility of integrating writing and analytical reading methods borrowed from liberal education into the educational process of a regional college. Sharing the idea of liberal education advocates that applying these methods to university courses facilitates the development of competencies required by the standard, we analyze our own relevant classroom experience. The paper justifies the effectiveness of teaching methods that develop academic writing and reading skills, arguing that they provide the basis for working independently with educational texts, writing essays, term papers and graduation theses. The most essential hindrances to integrating the above mentioned methods include teacher and student avoidance, as well as regulatory and financial constraints. Syllabus limitations challenge efficiency of the methods for the development of competencies required by the standard. At the same time, the writing and analytical reading methodology is in line with the publicly expressed desire of teachers to organize  philosophy seminars without diluting the content. The prospects of large-scale implementation of writing and analytical reading methods in teaching philosophy imply adjustment  of the existing syllabi.


Natalia Ivanova - Doctor of Sciences in Social Psychology, Professor, Department Head, Department of Organization Theory, School of Public Administration, Faculty of Social Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: sinec@inbox.ru

Elena Popova - Candidate of Sciences in Management Sociology, Associate Professor, Department of Organization Theory, School of Public Administration, Faculty of Social Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: eppopova@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St., 101000, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Russian universities face the objective of reaching the international standard in the development of science and education, which requires implementation of a number of innovations. Academic staff of universities consists of highly qualified specialists, whose characteristics are believed to include open-mindedness. At the same time, researchers have observed resistance to innovation on the part of the faculty. Some researchers divide university teachers into two groups based on the fundamental self-identification parameters: (i) those identifying themselves with the organization, and (ii) those committed to the profession. It is generally believed that teachers committed to the profession are more likely to support innovation. The article argues that both types of self-identification may be a factor of either active promotion of innovations or resistance to them. Resistance to innovation may be caused not so much by faculty characteristics as by the scale and pace of change. Permanent large-scale changes destroy the environment required for professional activities, forcing the academic staff to choose between organizational and professional identity and exciting resistance to innovation in them. The innovation process confronts the university with a crucial problem of retaining professionals, since they first of all identify themselves with the professional community. The article discusses the conditions under which professionals are willing to identify themselves with the organization and to support innovation.

Education Statistics and Sociology


Tatiana Chirkina - Research Intern at the International Laboratory for Education Policy Analysis of the Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: tchirkina@hse.ru

Tatiana Khavenson - Research Fellow at the International Laboratory for Education Policy Analysisof the Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics. E-mail: tkhavenson@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya St., 101000 Moscow, Russian Federation.

School climate is a significant factor of educational achievement. However, relevant research in Russia is difficult due to the absence of instruments. The paper peeks into the histor y of the notion of school climate, discussing approaches to defining the term. It also describes the most widespread questionnaires used to measure school climate and provides an analysis of their components. The empirical study is based on the student questionnaire used by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), which should ideally allow measuring a number of school climate aspects. A psychometric analysis based on the methods of confirmatory factor analysis and modern test theory reveals that the structure of school climate indices is different from what questionnaire designers expected it to be. It can not be clearly determined whether the questions reflect the school climate indicators that the questionnaires were supposed to measure. Some statements are worded in such a way that most school students should either agree or disagree with them, without showing any difference in their attitude toward the subject. The scale is unbalanced for the majority of items. The article suggests making some specific steps to improve this instrument.



Oleg Lebedev - Doctor of Sciences in Pedagogy, Professor, Department of Public Administration, St. Petersburg School of Social Sciences and Humanities, National Research University Higher School of Economics (Saint Petersburg).
Address: 17A Promyshlennaya, St, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation. E-mail: o_lebed@mail.ru

This article is inspired by Francis Fukuyama’s book called The End of History and the Last Man. Yet, compulsory education is not regarded as a perfect model here. The existing school education system is unable to offer anything else to improve educational outcomes. The study attempts to analyze the conditions under which compulsory education developed as well as its features that impede the improvement of education quality. An alternative education system should replace compulsory education to reach a higher level of quality. The transition to third-generation education standards may create a situation where a strategic trend for general education in Russia could be finally outlined. The fundamental provisions of the article are mostly expert judgments based on a research into official documents, publications at hand, and personal experience. In addition, the article picks up the discussion on the balance between the goals and outcomes of general education initiated in earlier articles published in Voprosy obrazovaniya [Lebedev 2005; 2009; 2011; 2013].

Reflections on…


Alexey Semenov - Doctor of Sciences in Mathematics; Professor, Moscow State University; Academician, Director of the Institute of Educational Informatics, Informatics and Management Federal Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences. Address: 40 Vavilova St, 119333 Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: alsemenov@ccas.ru

Seymour Papert — a major philosopher of education, a great educator of modern age, and the father of constructionism — passed away in summer 2016. The floor and screen turtles he added to the Logo programming language provided visualization and objectification of the processes, as well as conciseness of programming. As a result, Logo developed into a unique environment that millions of children in dozens of countries use to learn algorithmic (or computational) thinking. Professor Seymour Papert visited the Soviet Union and Russia a number of times. He played a key role in the establishment of the post-Soviet school’s educational philosophy. The article describes a number of crucial ideas and events associated with the development of Papert’s education philosophy, the implementation of his educational conception in Russia, his visits to Russia, and his meetings with Russian educators, which were first of all attended by the author.