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2015. no3

Educational Policies

8–43

A panel discussion on online learning was held at National Research University—Higher School of Economics on June 16, 2015. The scenario included three main topical units: how online learning affects the education structure; incurred changes to tuition fees and cash flows; promising areas of online learning research. Particularly, the agenda embraced the following questions: How efficient is online learning? What benefits does it provide to its players (institution, teachers, and students)? What risks are there for online learning players (institution, students)? Who has a demand for online learning? How does distribution of online learning affect the global and national education systems and organization of universities? Will Russian universities introduce the practice of replacing conventional courses with massive open online courses (MOOC)? Will there be any limitations to such practice (e. g. will students only be able to choose MOOC for general subjects but not for field-specific disciplines? will they be able to choose from OpenEdX courses only)? How introduction of this practice will affect the organization of the learning process and the level of teaching load? Will replacement of conventional courses with MOOC result in job cuts? Can the MOOC phenomenon give rise to discrimination between cheap online and elite classroom education? How do MOOC change the education market? Is MOOC distribution increasing the ternational competition between universities? How will tuition fees be affected?

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2015-3-8-43

44–65

Sofia Dokuka - Candidate of Sciences in Sociology, Junior Research Fellow, Center for Institutional Studies, International Research Laboratory for Institutional Analysis of Economic Reforms, National Research University—Higher School of Economics. E-mail: sdokuka@hse.ru

Diliara Valeeva - Junior Research Fellow, Center for Institutional Studies, International Research Laboratory for Institutional Analysis of Economic Reforms, National Research University—Higher School of Economics. E-mail: dvaleeva@hse.ru

Maria Yudkevich - Candidate of Sciences in Economic Theory, Vice Rector; Director, Center for Institutional Studies, National Research University—Higher School of Economics. E-mail: yudkevich@hse.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000, Moscow, Russian Federation

Peer-effects describe the influence of social environment on individual academic achievements. Social environment is usually considered as a randomly formed group. However, it forms and develops as a result of an individual conscious dynamic choice. Students may initially choose friends among peers with similar level of academic performance, and the influence of close friends on each other’s achievements may reveal itself over time. Using stochastic actor-based models, we demarcated the boundaries between social selection and social influence evaluated through academic performance. Having analyzed the dynamics of friendship ties and academic achievements throughout the first year at university, we discovered that students were not guided by the level of academic performance when choosing friends among peers but academic achievements of the latter affected their own performance over time. This could be explained by social segregation of students based on their academic outcomes.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2015-3-44-65

Theoretical and Applied Research

66–91

Daniil Alexandrov - Candidate of Sciences in Biology, Head, Sociology of Education and Science Laboratory, National Research University—Higher School of Economics (St. Petersburg). E-mail: dalexandrov@hse.ru

Ksenia Tenisheva - Research Assistant, Sociology of Education and Science Laboratory, National Research University—Higher School of Economics (St. Petersburg). E-mail: tenishewa.soc@gmail.com

Svetlana Savelyeva - Deputy Head, Sociology of Education and Science Laboratory, National Research University—Higher School of Economics (St. Petersburg). E-mail: ssavelieva@hse.ru

Address: 55/2 Sedova str., 192174, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation.

The vocational college system is regarded as a social mobility channel providing the highest profit with minimal risk. We analyze the specific features and trends of the institutional context that has developed in Russia over the last 15 years, which promote development of such channel. We discriminate between three types of colleges that have emerged after reorganization of this education level in Russia. Colleges of the three types differ in their legal status and in the way they interact with universities. We describe a social group using the “through college to university” educational trajectory. Its members fall in between those reproducing the qualified worker status and those reproducing the highly qualified professional status. Such people usually perform averagely at school. Having surveyed nine-graders in Saint Petersburg and in one of the districts in Leningrad region, we analyze the motives for choosing the “through college to university” educational trajectory and the ideas students with their parents had about benefits, costs, and risks of this pathway. It appears that geographical location plays a key role in choosing this trajectory. Opting for an alternative educational pathway is less typical of rural students dealing with much more structural constrains than their urban counterparts. Unlike in large cities, only more informed and higher-status groups make this choice in the countryside. A comparison of college systems in several countries allows to conclude that colleges in Russia represent an upward social mobility channel, just like in USA and unlike in Germany, where colleges ensure social reproduction.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2015-3-66-91

92–121

Natalia Maloshonok - Ph.D. in Sociology, Junior Researcher, Education Institute, National Research University—Higher School of Economics. E-mail: nmaloshonok@hse.ru

Tatiana Semenova - Postgraduate of Sociology Department, Social Sciences Faculty; Analyst, Education Institute, National Research University—Higher School of Economics. E-mail: tsemenova@hse.ru

Evgeniy Terentyev - Postgraduate of Sociology Department, Social Sciences Faculty; Analyst, Internal Monitoring Centre, National Research University—Higher School of Economics. E-mail: terentev_e@bk.ru

Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000, Moscow, Russian Federation

Herewith the authors set the purpose to integrate into Russian research practice a method of development of the hierarchical self-determination theory and the achievement goal orientation theory by demonstrating their explanatory potential based on the example of studying an academic motivation of students in two regional universities. The article presents in detail theoretical provisions on each approach and their application for academic motivation analysis is reviewed. Based on 37 half-structured interviews with students of two regional universities there is demonstrated the specifics and advantages of each of the theories. The self-determination theory in its expanded version turned out to be more efficient while studying the students’ motivation. It suggests a more detailed typology of motivation, provides more differentiated explanations of causes encouraging students for a more active involvement into the study process. Additionally, it suggests a system of internal motivation resources based on three identified needs: autonomy, competency and relatedness. The theory advantage is that it enables the explanation of the dynamics of various types of encouraging motives: situational, contextual and global. However, the reviewed theories are complementary in their essence, since they are focusing on various aspects of academic motivation: in the spotlight of the achievement goal orientation theory is a study of students’ aims for their involvement into the study process, whereas the hierarchal self-determination theory refers to the research of root causes of being involved into the study process.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2015-3-92-121

Practice

122–143

Anatoly Kasprzhak - Candidate of Sciences in Pedagogy, Professor, Institute of Education; Director, Center of Leadership Development in Education, Institute of Education, National Research University—Higher School of Economics. E-mail: agkasprzhak@hse.ru

Nikolay Filinov - Candidate of Sciences in Economics and Mathematical Methods, Dean, Faculty of Business and Management, National Research University—Higher School of Economics. E-mail: nfilinov@hse.ru

Rustam Bayburin - Analyst, Center of Leadership Development in Education, Institute of Education, National Research University—Higher School of Economics. E-mail: rbaiburin@hse.ru

Natalia Isaeva - Junior Research Fellow, Institute of Education, National Research University—Higher School of Economics. E-mail: nisaeva@hse.ru

Nadezhda Bysik - Research Fellow, Center of Leadership Development in Education, Institute of Education, National Research University—Higher School of Economics. E-mail: nbysik@hse.ru

Address: 16 Potapovsky lane, 101000, Moscow, Russian Federation

The paper revolves around the results of a research on school principal decision-making styles conducted in eight regions of the Russian Federation (one per federal district) in 2014, using the methodological approach by Alan J. Rowe. The study aimed to assess the reformist potential of Russian school principals. We believe that this potential is determined in the present context by the leadership style which suggests cooperation with teachers in decision-making processes and delegating them responsibilities under conditions of uncertainty and high cognitively complex tasks. Using the two-factor leadership model proposed by Bernard M. Bass, we suggest that either transformational or transactional leadership style may be efficient depending on school situation. Consequently, two types of leaders may be the most efficient in terms of school reformation: (1) principals with the conceptual decision-making style as dominant and the analy tical one as backup— they are ready to make changes and are likely already implementing them; (2) principals with the analytical leadership style as dominant and the conceptual one as backup—they are potentially prepared to adapt under changing conditions or if required to change by external influences. Assessment of the reformist potential among the existing school principal staff in Russia shows only 12% of school principals in eight regions apply the conceptual decision-making style having a backup analytical style—it’s them who can be classified as transformational leaders. Only 11% will implement changes efficiently under a specific context—those are transactional leaders who are likely to change their leadership style for transformational one.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2015-3-122-143

144–170

Alina Pishnyak - Candidate of Sciences in Sociology, Leading Researcher, Institute for Social Development Studies; Associate Professor, Faculty of Social Sciences, National Research University—Higher School of Economics. E-mail: a.pishniak@socpol.ru

Natalia Khalina - Lecturer, Faculty of Social Sciences, National Research University—Higher School of Economics. E-mail: nhalina@hse.ru

Address: 9/11 Myasnitskaya str., 101000, Moscow, Russian Federation

Based on the data of a representative poll performed by Institute of Megalopolis Humane Development in April of 2014 among 1516 parents of 1st through 11th grade students of Moscow schools, there are data being analyzed related to parents’ perception of preparation to and taking of SFT and USE. There are results given for groups of parents of school students of various ages: 1st‑4th, 5th‑6th, 7th‑9th and 10th‑11th grade students as well as a detailed information related to specific subjects of the school program. Most of those taking part in the poll believe that regular studies do not ensure passing of FST and USE with high grades with more than 30% of parents believing that additional classes would not allow passing with high grades either. Such expectations normally shape during the first years of their children spent in school. The major drawback for successful passing of FST and USE are believed to be poor training programs, whereas less than 20% refer to poor quality teaching. In parents’ view, students’ passing of FST and USE is accompanied by a series of challenges: starting from their persuasion being that exams are an inadequate tool for knowledge assessment to a fear of being unable to ensure they children a proper preparation to the exams. The authors believe that the issue of FST and USE has become a resource of social tension for families with children in a metropolis.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2015-3-144-170

171–207

Galina Shirokova - Doctor of Sciences in Economics, Professor, Department of Strategic and International Management, Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg State University. E-mail: shirokova@gsom.pu.ru

Tatyana Tsukanova - Assistant, Department of Strategic and International Management, Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg State University. E-mail: tsukanova@gsom.pu.ru

Karina Bogatyreva - PhD Student, Department of Strategic and International Management, Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg State University. E-mail: bogatyreva.phd2015@ledu.gsom.pu.ru

Address: 1/3 Volkhovsky per., 199004 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation

The study aims to assess how different types of entrepreneurial capital provided by universities affect student involvement in entrepreneurship. The role of university is analyzed from the embeddedness perspective, where purposeful behavior is largely affected by network relationship and the trust that exists in such relationship. We used data of the Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students’ Survey (GUESSS) as empirical basis for research. A hierarchical regression data analysis revealed that university initiatives to develop human and social capital influenced positively the extent to which students were engaged in entrepreneurship, while financial capital provided by universities had negative effects. We also investigated the moderating effects of previous business experience and entrepreneurial self-efficacy. It was found that previous experience was able to weaken the correlation of all the three types of resources provided by university with the range of student startup activities, including the negative effect of access to financial capital. Meanwhile, entrepreneurial self-efficacy intensifies this effect, abating the positive effects of university support for human and social capital development.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2015-3-171-207

Education Statistics and Sociology

208–229

Sergey Solntsev - Candidate of Sciences in Economics, Senior Research Fellow, Laboratory for Labour Market Studies, Faculty of Economic Sciences, National Research University — Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000, Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: ssolntsev@hse.ru

We review the most widespread theoretical models of demand for higher education. We use weekly Vedomostipublications on appointments of senior executives in Russian companies and Russian branches of foreign companies from the late 1999 to the late 2009 to analyze the education level of Russian senior executives: what first higher education they reseived and where; how and where they got their second higher education; what categories of managers are more likely to reseive a second higher education. The sample comprised 5001 appointments. We performed an econometric analysis of the factors determining demand for second higher education among senior executives. Almost all the senior executives have higher education, one third of them have two or more diplomas. Economic and business studies were found to be the most needed areas. Second higher education was more likely to be in demand by senior executives who obtained their first diploma in engineering or humanities.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2015-3-208-229

230–245

Vladlena Sergeeva - Expert, Institute of Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University—Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000, Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: sergeevavv@yandex.ru

The paper reviews some of the governmental policy measures aimed at strengthening of competition in the market of Russian universities, as well as the best international practices in this area. We have analyzed competitive behavior of universities under the current governmental policy in higher education, research and technology. The article suggests an approach towards assessing efficiency of governmental stimulation of competition among universities and towards forecasting outcomes of applying the existing stimulation tools. The paper provides the results of assessing the current situation with competition in the market of Russian universities using a non-structural method, namely an adjusted Panzar-Rosse competition assessment model. As one of the model factors, we used the cost of grants gained by universities as a part of governmental orders. We also analyzed the effects of other factors describing the size, entrance requirements, and research activity of universities. The article discovers how university income depends on the cost of grants received (a ratio of total income to the size of grants) and on the number of students and teachers. The level of competition in the reviewed market is outlined through elasticity of the total income of an average university based on the cost of grants received.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2015-3-230-245

History of Education

246–282

Irina Gluschenko - Candidate of Sciences in Theory and Cultural History, Associate Professor, School of Cultural Studies, Faculty of Humanities, National Research University—Higher School of Economics. Address: 20 Myasnitskaya str., 101000, Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: ultra-irina@mail.ru

We analyze the Soviet campaign to eradicate illiteracy among adults in the 1920s‑1930s. A comparison of educational and ideological aspects of this campaign demonstrates how closely they were related and how they formed new patterns of cultural behavior. We discuss methodological regulations and decrees of the Soviet government, as well as printed press, study guides, and ABC books. They reveal how entire social strata not only learned to read and to write but also familiarized themselves with (and shaped, to some extent) the new «lingua Sovietica» in the course of the campaign. This new language allowed people to communicate with authorities and to achieve their specific goals through playing with official notions and terms. The soviet approach was specific not just in that education was brought together with solving ideological and upbringing problems but in that it was a totally deliberate and transparent process. Eradication of illiteracy in the Soviet Union was accompanied by radical changes to the way people lived and worked, which resulted in immediate demand for and utilization of the skills they acquired. That was the key to success of the Soviet illiteracy eradication campaign. None of the countries that used the Soviet scheme in their enlightenment projects cold replicate this success, as people were taught literacy with the traditional social relationships being preserved. As a result, knowledge was distributed much slower and population often lost their newly-acquired skills quickly.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2015-3-246-282

Reflections on…

292–307

Valery Lazarev - Doctor of Sciences in Psychology, Full Member of the Russian Academy of Education, Leading Research Fellow, Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Address: 9, Mokhovaya str., 125009, Moscow, Russian Federation. E-mail: inido-vallaz@mail.ru

We discuss ways to engage students in projects efficiently. The existing practice in most schools is inconsistent with the goal the project method seeks to achieve, i. e. with thinking development. In reality, projects are replaced with «themed» reports, i. e. pseudo-projects. Consequently, the goal of thinking development is replaced with that of knowledge enhancement. Meanwhile, the progress in pedagogy, psychology and project science allows for rethinking the project method and applying it using the existing theoretical base, which we find indispensable. Based on the activity theory of thought, we identify the genesis of mental actions required to engage students in project activities: being an agent executing such practical action, representativeness of the cultural method of execution, and reflection on the method. Contemporary project practices are a universal way of defining and solving problems that may be applied in any sphere of human life. They provide massive opportunities for intellectual development of students, offering tools that may be used to master important skills: setting cognitive and practical tasks; analyzing problem situations; projecting goals; developing and verifying hypotheses; planning achievement of goals; evaluating one’s own decisions and making justified choices; working in a team effectively. These opportunities require that prerequisites for mastering mental actions should be provided. We develop a teaching package that includes a project study guide for students and recommendations for teachers to organize the learning process in a project form.

DOI: 10.17323/1814-9545-2015-3-292-307