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2013. no2

Educational Policies

7–14

Oleg Gazman (1936–1996), Ped.D., Associate Member of the Russian Academy of Education, Head of Laboratory at Center for Pedagogical Innovation, Moscow, Russian Federation. Address: 8 Pogodinskaya St., Moscow, 119121, Russian Federation.

The article analyzes different interpretations of the notion “education program” since the 1950s, when the first program of the kind was developed in the Academy of Education of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and up until the mid-1990s.

The author points out that supervising the life of a group of children on the basis of pre-developed national programs is characteristic of totalitarian systems. He believes that in an open democratic society, a “government order for a human being” may only be based on some general principles and guidelines, while specific education goals and objectives should be established solely by the teachers involved.

To reach the critical educational goal of maximum assistance to self-development of a child as an individual, the author suggests distinguishing between the notions of social adjustment and individualization. Based on this theory, he singles out two relevant types of programs: a) education programs designed to introduce the rising generation to national, common cultural values and to behavior standards; b) programs designed to provide pedagogical assistance for personal growth by helping overcome obstacles on the way to unique and socially appropriate development.

An education program may only be created as a part of a general personality development program. A comprehensive curriculum-based education program should include teaching, education and pedagogical support in the scope provided by the school. Thus, even extracurricular programs created in schools as part of supplementary education (development) may include both education programs as such and assistance subprograms.

Theoretical and Applied Research

15–48

Irina Abankina, Ph.D. in Economics, Professor, Director of the Education Development Institute, National Research University — Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: abankinaI@hse.ru 

Fuad Aleskerov, Eng.D., Professor, Head of Mathematics Department, Faculty of Economics, National Research University — Higher School of Economics, Head of the International Laboratory of Decision Choice and Analysis, National Research University — Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: alesk@hse.ru 

Veronika Belousova, Ph.D. in Economics, Head of Department for Methodology of Budget Planning at the Institute of Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University — Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: vbelousova@hse.ru 

Kirill Zinkovsky, Ph.D. in Economics, Deputy Director of the Education Development Institute, National Research University — Higher School of Economics. Email: kzinkovsky@hse.ru 

Vsevolod Petrushchenko, intern researcher at the International Laboratory of Decision Choice and Analysis, National Research University — Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: goroddt@yandex.ru                                   

This paper has systematized DEA-based university efficiency evaluation experience in a number of countries. The authors investigate into DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) models and describe how these models have been implemented by British, German, Greek, Australian and Canadian higher education institutions (HEIs). Comparability of results and consistency of the models have also been studied here.

The study has analyzed specific features of applying DEA models to evaluate efficiency of Russian HEIs, depending on the type of university. Performance of Russian HEIs has been compared with regard to their resource potential in educational and scientific activities. It has been discovered that in general, both classical and technical universities in Russia have more potential in educational activities than in science. Meanwhile, technical universities have a higher overall scientific and educational potential (70–90%) than classical universities (50–60%).

A comparison of performance of Russian and foreign universities has shown that efficiency level in Russia is higher than in Germany, nearly the same as in Australia and lower than in Canada and in Great Britain.

It has been demonstrated through the example of Russian universities that efficiency evaluation should only be performed for universities with similar profiles and basic features. Evaluation of performance of universities allows to reveal their strengths and weaknesses and, knowing this, to build efficient development strategies for each of them. 

49–66

Nodar Mosaki, Ph.D. in History, senior researcher at the Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation.  Email: nodarmossaki@gmail.com
Address: 12 Rozhdestvenka St., Moscow, 107031, Russian Federation.

The experience of opening national schools abroad has been studied through the example of Turkish schools opened in 140 countries. The study has analyzed activities of Turkish schools in Africa and their importance for promoting a positive image of Turkey on the Dark Continent. The study has also identified the factors of success and investigated into the composition of student population and into the specific features of educational programs.

Worldwide expansion of Turkish schools has become Turkey’s most successful foreign policy project in recent years. In spite of being part of a non-governmental project, private schools are strongly supported by authorities. Financing comes from tuition fees and business sponsorship. Creating a wide network of Turkish schools abroad owes the best part of its success to commitment and missionary attitude of pro-Muslim businessmen sponsoring these schools. The private nature of schools provides for control flexibility and helps prevent bureaucratization.

Turkish schools abroad are made even more attractive due to teaching in English. Being fluent in some other languages apart from English, including non-European ones, graduates have almost unlimited choices. An intense scientific and humanitarian program allows to select the most talented students, giving them chances to get higher education in the best universities of the world. Nonschool activities of teachers, who work closely with students’ families and are engaged in charity, advance reputation ratings of Turkish schools in local communities. Turkish schools have become the key channel of national influence, promoting the “Turkish-Islamic synthesis” across the African continent.

67–81

Ivan Gruzdev, M.A. in Sociology, analyst at the Internal Monitoring Center, National Research University —Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: van@gorod.org.ru 

Yelena Gorbunova, M.A in Sociology, analyst at the Internal Monitoring Center, National Research University —Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: evgorbunova@hse.ru 

Isak Froumin, Ped.D., Professor, Director of Research and Development at the Education Institute, National Research University —Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: ifroumin@hse.ru 

Institutional changes in the educational system (university financing reform) and demographic changes in the society reducing the proportion of student-age population have made the problem of academic dismissal one of the priority areas in higher education research. Dismissal of students from Russian higher education institutions has been studied through analyzing the results of questionnaires and interviews conducted among dismissed students. It has been established that Russian higher education system fosters a special type of academic dismissal, which is a coercive procedure performed by universities, or professors, towards students. Academic dismissal in Russia has a qualitative distinction from the dropout phenomenon characteristic of the Western world, when a student leaves a university voluntarily. Most commonly, students drop out because they are poorly integrated into university life; thus, dropouts may be prevented by implementing socialization and orientation programs. Specific features of academic dismissal in Russia require introduction of special dismissal level control principles. It has been discovered that dismissed students are very likely to resume their education (only 4% of respondents give up on higher education), which reveals the need to improve criteria of academic assessment and to develop non-dismissal institutional discipline measures. Exploration of academic dismissal reasons and mechanisms is of practical importance for enhancing efficiency of educational policies in higher education institutions.

82–87

Marina Dyuzhakova, Ped.D., Associate Professor at Voronezh State Pedagogical University, Voronezh, Russian Federation. Email: d.sveta@rambler.ru Address: 86 Lenina St., Voronezh, 394043, Russian Federation.                                            

The commentary summarizes the key features of Bowman’s meta-analysis of publications on the relationship between interethnic/intercultural interactions in college and cognitive development of students: criteria of selecting publications for analysis, advantages of using the hierarchical linear modeling method, the author’s hypotheses, discussion of possible predictors of the relationship intensity, importance of the analysis results for educational practices.

Increased attention towards the problem of diversity experiences in the United States is explained by a difficult demographic situation that requires providing equal opportunities in education for all US citizens. Dyuzhakova finds it a good idea to use ethnic and sociocultural diversity for enhancing cognitive achievements of Russian students, too (contrary to the deeply-rooted presumption in the Russian society that increasing the proportion of other ethnicities, including non-native Russian speakers, has a deteriorating effect on the quality of education).

Bowman’s research experience and methodology will allow for a deeper insight into how education quality depends on diversity interactions that students can experience in universities. Quantitative meta-analysis makes it possible to integrate results of a number of studies in order to investigate deeper into the problem. This method may be of great importance in theory of science and research methodology and provide rich material for educational practices. 

88–132

Nicholas A. Bowman, Postdoctoral Research Associate at Center for Social Concerns, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, United States. Email: nbowman@nd.edu
Address: 164 Geddes Hall Notre Dame, IN 46556, United States.

The current study uses meta-analysis to examine the relationship between diversity interactions and cognitive development, as well as the extent to which intensity of this relationship depends on the study characteristics (types of interethnic/intercultural interactions, types of cognitive achievements, and research methodology).

The findings suggest that several types of diversity experiences (cross-racial interactions or same-race interactions between counterparts of different socioeconomic status, culture, or confession; seminars and training courses on ethnocultural diversity) are positively related to several cognitive outcomes.

Cross-racial interactions have a greater impact on cognitive development than same-race interactions, which points to importance of stimulating ethnic diversity among students in order to improve their academic performance.

Ethnocultural diversity positively affects not only cognitive tendencies but also basic cognitive skills, such as critical thinking or problem-solving skills. Connection between diversity experiences and cognitive development is preserved even in unpublished studies, regardless of methods used to measure the result.

Despite discrepancies between some studies, diversity interactions in college have proved to have an overall positive influence on cognitive development among students. Thus, providing a variety of diversity experiences might prolong the effortful thinking and can help each institution foster meaningful development among its students.

Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

133–153

Darya Litvina, intern researcher at the Center for Youth Studies, National Research University — Higher School of Economics — St. Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, second prize winner in the Analytical Study Competition. Email: litvina.darya@mail.ru

Yelena Omelchenko
, Ph.D. in Sociology, Professor in the Sociology Department, Director of the Center for Youth Studies, National Research University — Higher School of Economics — St. Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, second prize winner in the Analytical Study Competition. Email: eomelchenko@hse.spb.ru 

The anarchist community is used to analyze informal education patterns inside radically politicized youth communities. The paper studies how informal education system is related with everyday activists’ practices and identifies structural organization of this system and its consistency with political and philosophical attitudes in the community.

It has been discovered that, despite severe criticism of formal education system, education remains highly appreciated by anarchists. Thus, they mostly trust informal education channels, as independent sources of information. Social space of informal education is represented by communication, i.e. adherents translate key anarchist values through everyday interpersonal communication and demonstrate their belonging to the community through reference to important texts, names, and events. An informal education system in a subcultural environment is formed the same way as formal systems are formed: knowledge is selected, legitimized, optimized, and reproduced in compliance with ideological principles. Ideology is transparent in informal education, unlike in formal one. Subject areas of anarchist informal education are integrated in activist and political projects and related to anarchist philosophy and everyday life. As individuals are involved into informal education practices based on alternative interpretation of existing economic, governmental, and social structures, it results in changing their vision of the world and reorganizing their essential strategies and everyday practices.

The analysis has demonstrated how informal knowledge systems can replace formal ones and produce new forms of sociality, changing not only parlance but also lifestyle, activities, and consumer practices of adherents. 

Practice

Knowledge Exchange between High School Teachers: Factors of Intensity
154–187

Tatyana Andreyeva, Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor in the Department of Organizational Behavior and Personnel Management, Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation. Email: andreeva@gsom.pu.ru
Address: 3 Volkhovsky Lane, Saint Petersburg, 199004, Russian Federation.

Anastasiya Sergeyeva, research student at Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation. Email: sergeevan2000@gmail.com ddress: 3 Volkhovsky Lane, Saint Petersburg, 199004, Russian Federation.

Anastasiya Golubeva, Ph.D. in Economics, senior teacher in the Department of Public Administration, Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation. Email: golubeva@gsom.pu.ru
Address: 3 Volkhovsky Lane, Saint Petersburg, 199004, Russian Federation.

Yaroslav Pavlov, research student at Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation. Email: yaroslav.pavlov@gmail.com Address: 3 Volkhovsky Lane, Saint Petersburg, 199004, Russian Federation.

Based on a teacher questionnaire, factors influencing the intensity of knowledge exchange between high school teachers have been analyzed. The theoretic model adjusted by the survey for public institutions, such as high schools, includes the following factors explaining involvement of teachers in exchanging knowledge with their colleagues: extrinsic motivation (an inducement for activity coming from expected external benefits), intrinsic motivation (an impulse related to getting satisfaction from the nature and the process of activity), possibility (represented as an organizational culture), and capacity to share knowledge.

It has been established that intensity of knowledge exchange depends positively on the intrinsic motivation of an individual as well as on the organizational culture supporting the process of exchange. Extrinsic motivation does not influence the intensity directly but contributes to it through strengthening intrinsic motivation.

There is no statistically important relation between occupational experience and intensity of knowledge exchange, which means that capacity to exchange knowledge does not develop with the years of experience but is rather determined by skills of self-reflection and tacit knowledge externalization.

Recommendations have been given to school principals and other school managers to help them develop teachers’ intrinsic motivation to exchange knowledge and to create a supporting organizational culture and other factors stimulating knowledge exchange between school teachers. 

Training of Elite Engineering and Technology Experts
188–208

Pyotr Chubik, Eng.D., Professor, Rector of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russian Federation. Email: chubik@tpu.ru Address: 30 Lenina Ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russian Federation.

Aleksandr Chuchalin, Eng.D., Professor, Vice Rector for Academic and International Affairs at National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russian Federation. Email: chai@tpu.ru Address: 30 Lenina Ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russian Federation.

Mikhail Solovyov, Eng.D., Associate Professor, Head of Division of Academic Methodology at National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russian Federation. Email: solo@tpu.ru Address: 30 Lenina Ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russian Federation.

Oksana Zamyatina, Eng.D., Associate Professor, Head of Elite Engineering Education Department at National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russian Federation. Email: zamyatina@tpu.ru Address: 30 Lenina Ave., Tomsk, 634050, Russian Federation.

This is a comparative analysis of training programs for elite engineering and technology experts in Russian and foreign universities. The paper has discovered priorities of these programs in establishing competencies of future engineering leaders.

Elite Russian higher engineering education has been traditionally and fundamentally focused on natural sciences, mathematics, engineering, and practical trainings. Elite engineering programs in Russian universities are designed to develop professional competencies of students but they provide a relatively weak humanitarian background. Unlike in Russia, major foreign universities, particularly in the US, complement their engineering programs with a humanitarian component, paying specific attention to developing business skills, leadership qualities, and universal (personality) competencies in students to satisfy long-term society requirements.

Development of an elite engineering education system in Russia has been studied through the example of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University. The elite engineering education program here is designed to train leaders in priority engineering and technology fields in order to provide a resource efficient national economy. The TPU program aims at developing fundamental, innovative, business, and leadership oriented competencies, both professional and universal. Academic mobility and double-degree Master’s programs have been realized in cooperation with major foreign universities to make graduates more viable and to gain international experience.

Education Statistics and Sociology

209–231

Based on the data obtained by the Center of Socioeconomic Development of Schools, National Research University — Higher School of Economics

Boris Kupriyanov, leading researcher at the Center of Socioeconomic Development of Schools, National Research University — Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: boriskuprianoff2012@yandex.ru 

Sergey Kosaretsky, Director of the Center of Socioeconomic Development of Schools, National Research University — Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: skosaretski@hse.ru 

Tatyana Mertsalova, leading researcher at the Center of Socioeconomic Development of Schools, National Research University — Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: tmertsalova@hse.ru 

Tatyana Semyonova, intern researcher at the Center of Socioeconomic Development of Schools, National Research University — Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: tsemenova@hse.ru 

The paper provides results of a survey conducted among leaders of supplementary education institutions for children (UDOD).

Analysis of availability of supplementary education services to various groups of children included investigation into the age composition of students and its change over time. Composition of students has also been described based on their geography and financing sources. The study has examined availability of UDOD programs to children with different learning capabilities and different social status.

The paper studies orientation and duration of programs implemented by UDODs, recruiting troubles, and personnel provision.

Analysis of composition of UDOD teachers included investigation into the age patterns, level of professional education, length of service, and salary level.

The study examines income and expense structure of UDOD institutions, existing and anticipated amounts of budgetary and extra-budgetary financing.

UDOD management techniques are discussed. The paper provides an assessment of UDOD financial stability and competitive performance by UDOD leaders and an overview of the leaders’ attitudes towards measures to modernize supplementary education discussed in the government and among experts.

The data obtained allows to give a clear understanding of how UDOD institutions operate in the context of social changes and education modernization, to describe the real situation and UDOD development trends, and to create an empirical basis for building an educational policy at national, regional, and local levels.

233–251

Valeriya Ivanyushina, Ph.D. in Biology, leading researcher at the Sociology of Education and Science Laboratory, National Research University — Higher School of Economics — St. Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation. Email: v.ivaniushina@gmail.com

Daniil Aleksandrov
, Ph.D. in Biology, Professor and Head of the Sociology of Education and Science Laboratory, National Research University — Higher School of Economics — St. Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation. Email: da1581@gmail.com 

Analyzing the results of a survey among students in regular public schools, the study seeks to check for existence of a differentiation — polarization effect in Russian schooling system. The latter is characterized by a specific stratification based on socioeconomic status of families and differing from stratification patterns in foreign schools. The study compares how pro-school and anti-school cultures influence academic performance at various levels of students’ social environment (school, class, close friendship groups).

As a result of two-stage stratified sampling, the schools involved in the study have been divided into two groups: with standard and advanced educational programs. Multi-stage regression analysis has established that socioeconomic differentiation of Russian schools does not result in polarization of pro-school and anti-school attitudes in different types of schools. The level of pro-school attitudes is rather determined by individual and family factors (gender, immigration status, socioeconomic status of family and parental education).

In order to compare how school and immediate environment influence overall academic performance, the authors have built a three-tier model: individual — clique (an intensive interaction group) — school. The clique level was introduced into analysis by building social cliques within classes and identifying intensive interaction groups where internal relations are much closer than relations of members with other students. It has been discovered that factors of pro-school attitude in cliques have a positive influence on academic performance, with due account of individual attitudes and sociodemographic factors. Polarization of attitudes, uncharacteristic of the school level, evolves and consolidates at the level of intense interaction groups.

252–269

Edgar Demetrio Tovar García, research fellow at the Education Quality Monitoring Center, Education Development Institute, National Research University — Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: beno09@yahoo.com 

Due to national and cultural diversity of Russia, it has been decided to analyze the parental education effect locally, in the Republic of Tatarstan, and to find out whether the effect is determined by other independent values such as gender, ethnicity, financial situation, cultural capital, social capital, educational resources, non-cognitive skills, health, and peers’ attitude towards education.

Cross tabulation and correlation analysis of questionnaire data have revealed a positive though insignificant interdependence between parental education and high-school students’ educational trajectories and academic achievements. Gender and ethnic group have proven to be the best predictors  of academic progress; in particular, female students have better performance than males and Tatar-speaking students outperform Russian speakers. Educational trajectories depend mostly on gender (20% more female students plan to get higher education).

Regression and discriminant analyses have shown that, to predict academic progress, one should take into account education of parents (mostly fathers) and other independent variables: cultural capital, non-cognitive skills, peers’ attitude towards education, health, ethnicity and gender. Higher education prospects are determined by education of parents (mostly fathers). However, performance and gender variables also contribute to the statistics (high performance gives more chances for higher education; female students are more likely to get higher education than male students).

Based on the data obtained, it is recommended to adjust the education strategy in Tatarstan in order to improve academic performance in two heterogeneous groups — male students and Russian-speaking students. Weak connection between student performance and parental education eliminates the need to level down the effects of poor parental education.

History of Education

270–280

Sergey Druzhilov, Psy.D., Associate Professor, leading researcher at the Research Institute for Complex Problems of Hygiene and Occupational Diseases, Siberian Department of the Russian academy of Medical Sciences, Novokuznetsk, Russian Federation.  Email: druzhilov@mail.ru
Address: 23 Kutuzova St., Novokuznetsk, 654041, Russian Federation.

The study aims to investigate into the higher education system that had been developed in Russia by the Revolution of 1917. It has been demonstrated that the accumulated educational lag had been eliminated actively during the two decades preceding the World War I by establishing new universities and professional educational institutions and by creating a series of private universities in addition to the system of governmental ones.

In the dawn of capitalism, higher education was on the rise in Russia. There were ever more professors, and the number of students had increased almost ten times by that time. There also was an increase in social value of university graduates’ labor. The academic degree system was pretty close to that of Western Europe (Master and Doctor degrees), while requirements for candidates were much higher in Russia than abroad. As a professional group, university intelligentsia played a prominent role in social, economic, political, and cultural life of the pre-revolutionary Russia. In the dialogue with the government and the society, the university association defended the principles of university autonomy, which, at the time, was limited by bureaucracy and total control of the Ministry of National Education.

The Soviet Union put an end to the progressive development of higher schools in Russia. The existing higher education system was fully destroyed, while university intelligentsia, as a social and professional group bearing educational culture and university traditions, was virtually obliterated in the epoch of revolutionary terror and political repressions.

Book Reviews and Survey Articles

281–284

Diane Ravitch, historian of education, Research Professor at New York University's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, New York, NY, USA.  Email: gardendr@gmail.com
Address: 627 Broadway, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10012, USA.

The author analyzes the measure of teacher quality based on test scores of the students taught. The measure was introduced by the US Race to the Top federal education program and caused a conflict between the teachers union and administrative leaders.

Value-added assessment is the key criterion used in the new teacher assessment system. The assumption is that good teachers produce higher test scores every year, while ineffective teachers do not.

The new measure to evaluate efficiency of teachers is determined as inappropriate. The assessment does not take into account how test scores are contingent on social and economic background of students being tested, or on their learning capabilities. Those who teach students with disabilities, English-language learners, and low-performing students are likely to get smaller gains in test scores than those who teach students from affluent homes in well-funded schools. Using test scores to rate teachers will penalize those who teach the students in greatest need. Over time, teachers will avoid the students who jeopardize their jobs and their reputations. Besides, tests are also subject to human error, sampling error, random error, and other errors. Applying a measure of teacher quality designed to improve numerical rankings means ignoring the complex set of qualities that make someone good at what they do. Inconsistency between the rankings and the real competence of teachers proves that success at teaching character, wisdom, and judgment cannot be measured by standardized tests. 

Reflections on…

285–298

Semyon Vershlovsky, Ped.D., Professor in the Department of Pedagogy and Andragogy, St. Petersburg Academy for Postgraduate Pedagogical Education, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation. Email: sg2701@mail.ru
Address: 11–13 Lomonosova St., Saint Petersburg, 191002, Russian Federation.

The interdisciplinary notion of “adulthood”, which forms the andragogical problem field, is studied in the context of social personality development. Three components of the “adulthood” notion have been determined: psychological maturity (the whole of psychological development indicators including independence in predicting one’s own behavior and evaluating one’s own actions, as well as ability to mobilize oneself to implement one’s own decisions), social maturity (ability to make vital decisions independently based on responsibility, tolerance, understanding of life, and prosocial behavior), orientation towards humanist values (a component enhancing social and personal importance of an individual).

The study describes the major periods of adult life and crises arising on the way. Through the example of pedagogy, various types of professional development crisis have been analyzed, such as occupational adaptation crisis, routine crisis, and long experience crisis. Recommendations have been given on providing andragogical support to teachers and creating conditions for them to overcome professional crises at personality level. It has been demonstrated that one of the most important methods to overcome crises successfully and to preserve psychological health and performance in the workplace is to engage adults into the system of continuous postgraduate education, both formal andinformal, which would present prospects for their professional growth, expand the scope of their professional communication, and create opportunities to realize their non-professional interests.

With advanced trainings and informal education, teachers will be able to resist the consistent trend of “ageing” and to avoid developing stereotyped attitudes towards teaching.